Synopsis on Foursided hacksaw motorised based

SYNOPSIS

ON

FOUR WAY HACKSAW SOLAR BASED

INTRODUCTION:

We have pleasure in introducing our new project “AUTOMATIC OPERATED FOUR WAY HACKSAW”, which is fully equipped by sensors circuit and wiper motor. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and designed for Machines. The FOUR WAY HACKSAW system is a fully automation project. This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased.

We are using solar panel in this project which will convert the solar energy into the electrical energy and with this technology we will charge the battery which will be used by the motor to power up the CAM hence the four way hacksaw machine will start working.

Hacksaw

A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface.

Blades

Blades are available in standardized lengths, 10 or 12 inches (254 or 305 mm) for a standard hand hacksaw. “Junior” hacksaws are 6 inches (152 mm) long. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.

TYPES OF BLADES:

1.High Carbon Steel

2.Low Alloy Steel

3.Bi-Metallic Steel

4.High Speed Steel

METHODOLOGY BEING USED

CAM TECHNOLOGY:

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device that rotates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.

Component List:

  • HACKSAW

  • MODEL FRAME

  • CAM

  • SHAFTS

  • SOLAR PANEL

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • CHARGING CIRCUIT

ADVANTEGES:

  • Weight of machine less

  • It reduce the work of labor

  • Easy to make because of simple construction

  • High production rate.

  • Cost is less

APPLICATIONS:

  • In Engineering industry

  • In Construction industry

  • In workshop

CONCLUSION:

We have learnt how the theoretical design is possible is possible in practical. Other Hacksaw machine is only cut one part at one time but this machine cut the four part at a time, this hacksaw machine has lighter weight as compared to other machine. The cost of machine is less and easy to operate so it affordable for all industry.

Future Scope:

We can try to change the speed of motor cutting the different metal at various speed if it possible. So we can make the changes as well in the project as per the requirements.

Synopsis on automatic bike stand

INTRODUCTION:

In all over world everywhere motorcycle are used. The side stand plays major roll while the vehicle is in rest position. But it has some disadvantages takes place as while the driver starting the motorcycle, there may be possibility of forget to release the side stand this will caused to unwanted troubles. This is a new type of side stand which is automatically retracting the side stand through some mechanical and electronic arrangement. In this system microcontroller, speed sensor, dc battery is used. Through the speed sensor, sensor sense the rotation of the wheel and sends the signal to the microcontroller which is actuate the dc motor which is caused the disengage the stand from the road. A motorcycle side stand is nearly universal method of allowing a motorcycle rider to park his vehicle easily. If this stand is in the park position while the motorcycle is ridden through left turn a serious hazard exists. A new type stand side stand which is automatically retracting side stand is invented to prevent such type of accidents. Side stand mounted behind bottom bracket and can be bolted on either clamping the chain stays, or welded in to place as an integral part of the frame.
The motorcycle side stand consists of steel rod held in both park and stopped position by an over centered spring. It is to provide the stand stability and a support to the motorcycle. Many side stand designs, attachments, mechanisms and rider warning system. Some side stand retracts automatically when the motorcycle is lifted off the support. Some retract if they contact the ground when the motorcycle is moving. Many different concepts have been applied for this hazard

COMPONENT OF SYSTEM
1) Battery
2) DC motor
3) Push button
4) Microcontroller
5) Side stand
6) Relay
7) Speed sensor

DRY CELL BATTERY –
A dry cell uses a paste electrolyte, with only enough moisture to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can operate in any orientation without spilling, as it contains no free liquid, making it suitable for portable equipment. By comparison, the first wet cells were typically fragile glass containers with lead rods hanging from the open top and needed careful handling to avoid spillage. Lead–acid batteries did not achieve the safety and portability of the dry cell until the development of the gel battery. A common dry cell is the zinc–carbon battery, sometimes called the dry Avalanche cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc–manganese dioxide combination). A standard dry cell comprises a zinc anode, usually in the form of a cylindrical pot, with a carbon cathode in the form of a central rod. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a depolarize. In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. D.C. MOTOR –
DC motor is designed for two speed operation. It consists of three brushes namely: common, low speed, high speed. Two of the brushes will be supplied for different made of operation. The DC motor does not oscillate back and forth, it rotates continuously in one direction like most others motors. The rotational motion is converted to the back and forth wiper motion by a series of mechanical linkage. This type of motor is called a gear head or motor end has advantage of having lots of torque. The dc motor works on 12volt D.C. battery.

POWERING THE MOTOR –
Voltage- the standard voltage requirement for the motor is 12v DC. The electrical system in a running automobile usually puts out between 13 and 13.5 volts, so it’s safe to say the motor can handle up to 13.5 volts with no problem. I wouldn’t recommend any voltages higher than that.

CURRENT –
The minimum required current for the motor is 1.6 amps 70 rpm, 0.9 amps at 41 rpm. These current ratings are for the motor spinning with no load. As you add mechanical load, these numbers can increase dramatically, doubling or even tripling under a heavy load. This factor must be taken into account when selecting a power supply. Since the motor will only use what it needs when it comes to current, it’s best to provide a source with a higher current rating than you think you might need. SWITCH BUTTON –
In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either “closed” meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or “open”, meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a “toggle” (flip switch for continuous “on” or “off”) or “momentary” (push-for “on” or push-for “off”) type.
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock.
An ideal switch would have no voltage drop when closed, and would have no limits on voltage or current rating. It would have zero rise time and fall time during state changes, and would change state without “bouncing” between on and off positions. Practical switches fall short of this ideal; they have resistance, limits on the current and voltage they can handle, finite switching time, etc. The ideal switch is often used in circuit analysis as it greatly simplifies the system of equations to be solved, but this can lead to a less accurate solution.

MICROCONTROLLER –
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated μC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Micro-controllers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Micro-controllers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.

SIDE STAND –
A Side stand is a device on a bicycle or motorcycle that allows the bike to be kept upright without leaning against another object or the aid of a person. A “smaller, more convenient” kickstand was developed by Joseph Paul Treen, the father of former Louisiana Governor, Dave Treen. A kickstand is usually a piece of metal that flips down from the frame and makes contact with the ground. It is generally located in the middle of the bike or towards the rear. Some touring bikes have two: one at the rear, and a second in the front.
A side stand style kickstand is a single leg that simply flips out to one side, usually the non-drive side, and the bike then leans against it. Side stands can be mounted to the chain stays right behind the bottom bracket or to a chain and seat stay near the rear hub. Side stands mounted right behind the bottom bracket can be bolted on, either clamping the chain stays or to the bracket between them, or welded into place as an integral part of the frame.

RELAY –
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contractor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching.

STEP INVOLVED FOR MAKING AUTOMATIC SIDE STAND FOR TWO WHEELER

STEP1 – CONSTRUCTION OF FRAME
Firstly we are made a general layout of side stand frame according to dimension given in present time of two wheeler. for making frame, we are used mild steel rod and with the help of manufacturing process be prepare a rectangular frame the manufacturing process include for making side stand frame are cutting, welding , grinding ,and super finishing .this figure shows the mild steel rod for making side steel frame.
STEP 2 – MAKING PLATE FOR PIVOTED SIDE STAND FROM FRAME
In this stage we are made plate on which side stands are pivoted. The dimension of this plate is given according to motorcycle specification. The plate consists of hole for bolted the side stand and a upper hook are welded to connect the one end of the spring. This plate is welded with the frame inclined to the frame axis.
STEP 3 – MAKING A TENSION SPRING
In this step we take a spring wire and with the help of lathe machine we form a tension spring. The material of the tensile spring is stainless steel. After lab test we found the stiffness of spring. 1.732 N/mm.
STEP 4 – MAKING A MECHANICAL BUSH
In this step we make we make a mechanical bush from a solid rod of stainless steel with the help of of the lathe machine. Firstly we have done turning operation for finding the desire dimension and after that we have made a hole with the help of drill bit. The main function of mechanical bush is to connect the motor shaft to the pivoted bolt of side stand.
STEP 5-FINAL ASSEMBLY
In this step all the component of side stand are assembled in proper manner. the presented mechanism consist of a D.C motor powered by motorcycle’s battery ,connected to the side stand through a worm and worm gear mechanism to gain speed reduction of motor and multiply the torque . The motor is actuated by the sensor mounted on the front wheel through the microcontroller. A presser switch is also mounted on the stand bracket to sense full disengagement of stand. When the vehicle starts moving the sensor on front wheel sends a signal to the microcontroller to actuate the motor causing them to move disengaged position. When the stand is fully disengaged it presses the pressure switch which again sends a signal the microcontroller which stops the motor.

APPLICATION
Ø This is used in all type of two wheelers such as geared, non- geared, hand gears two wheelers
ADVANTEGES
Ø Here simple mechanism operated
Ø It is simple in installation
Ø No needed for extra power source
Ø good economic cost
Ø It not require special design

CONCLUSION:
We observe that from the design and analysis D.C motor and other component like as microcontroller and speed sensor ,switch are occupies less space and this space is easily available into the mechanical frame of the motorcycle . After analysis of torque the required torque to raise the side stand is 6076 N-m. So after calculation of torque we determined the power required to raise the side stand which is 19.078 Watt. So we design automatic side stand for maximum frictional torque. Hence we used 12V DC geared motor which draws 2 amp current and 24W power. Automatic stand is presently in use and quite successful. Although it has certain disadvantages. Automatic Side Stand 182 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 1) When the rider pushes the button then the

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Synopsis on Pneumatic Punching machine

Pneumatic punch machine:

With a punch machine holes are punched in work pieces via a pneumatic cylinder. The cylinder is equipped with two sensors 1S1 and 1S2 which report a 1 if the back or the front of the end state is reached and is controled via a magnetic valve. The cylinder seems simple. Moving out of position is effected via compressed air as soon as 1Y1 is activated, moving into position is effected via spring force.
The punch system is activated via two push-buttons, S1 and S2. In order to avoid accidents during the production both buttons have to be activated to run the punch machine.
A control has to be installed which ensures that both buttons are activated before the cylinder punches a hole into the work piece. In addition, safety measures have to be taken so that no manipulation is possible, for example, the push-button is glued. That means that the punch must only be operated when the two buttons are actually pressed anew.
Solution approaches: In order to put this control into practice an Edge evaluation is necessary in any case. This is the only way that the running of the punch machine is guaranteed when the buttons are pressed (signal 0 -> 1). The output 1Y1 has to be controlled with memory units as otherwise the cylinder has to “save” its state after the two buttons have been pressed, before the front end state resets the saved state.
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this project presentation topics is punching the objects for much application, like sealing, name punching, plate designing and etc. Here we are designing a pneumatic spiral punching making machines are necessary for saving the manufacturing time in the process, pneumatic is act as a main role.Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.

Major components of the project:

Pneumatic Cylinder.
Compressor.
Solenoid control valve
Die(male, female)clamp

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The main objective of our project presentation topics is to designing and developing a very compact, punch making machine. Initially the switch unit operates the compressor which delivers the air to the solenoid valve at certain pressure. The solenoid controls the flow direction of air to the pneumatic cylinder. Thus the reciprocating motion of the pneumatic cylinder creates high force to punch the work piece. This part consists of two parts one is fixed called upper die, at the base and other is fixed called lower die at the end of piston rod. This part is moved up and down to provide the force on the object.
Here in this project presentation topics we used for carrying the objects from one side to another side the object when it comes, if it detects the object means it will out puts a low pulse to the controller. Pneumatic is act as punching equipment. We can connect seal or cup cast with the pneumatic for cup production. Different seals and casts are used for punching the different shapes. When control unit detects the low pulse from then that will ON the pneumatic for Punch. After a second the controller will OFF the pneumatic. After getting the punch from the pneumatic spiral punch making.
INDRODUCTION
Pneumatic hole punching helps to make the hole in sheet metal   by using Compressed Air.  Pneumatic  actuators  controlled energy to the punch , so the Operator needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. Pneumatic Punching machine helps to make hole in Various size by changing tool. As well, pneumatic Punch provides some feedback of forces acting on the Sheet and Hole can Made in Sheet metal.

Pneumatic Hole punching machine is reduce Effort To Operator. Operator Need Very Less amount of effort.
Pneumatic hole punching machine operated by compressed Air. Pneumatic clamp have pneumatic Cylinder, 5/2 Flow control Hand Lever valve

Depending on the job specification, there are multiple forms of body constructions available :
Tie rod cylinders: The most common cylinder constructions that can be used in many types of loads. Has been proven to be the safest form.
Flanged-type cylinders: Fixed flanges are added to the ends of cylinder, however, this form of construction is more common in hydraulic cylinder construction.
One-piece welded cylinders: Ends are welded or crimped to the tube, this form is inexpensive but makes the cylinder non-serviceable.
Threaded end cylinders: Ends are screwed onto the tube body. The reduction of material can weaken the tube and may introduce thread concentricity problems to the system

4. Tool:

Punch tooling (punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide. A die is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the perimeter of the hole and helps to localize the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. There is a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. The amount of clearance needed depends on the thickness, with thicker materials requiring more clearance, but the clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. The clearance is also dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a workpiece, producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch, or slightly smaller after the punch is removed. All ductile materials stretch to some extent during punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. In this case, the punch must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the punch side, and this process is known as stripping. The hole walls will show burnished area, rollover, and die break and must often be further processed. The slug from the hole falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it.

PRINCIPLE OF PROJECT
Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes through the work into a die. A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the process. Depending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused or discarded. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production volumes. When a specially shaped punch is used to create multiple usable parts from a sheet of material the process is known as blanking. In forging applications the work is often punched while hot, and this is called hot punching

Punch tooling (punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide. A die is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the perimeter of the hole and helps to localize the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. There is a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. The amount of clearance needed depends on the thickness, with thicker materials requiring more clearance, but the clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. The clearance is also dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a workpiece, producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch, or slightly smaller after the punch is removed. All ductile materials stretch to some extent during punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. In this case, the punch must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the punch side, and this process is known as stripping. The hole walls will show burnished area, rollover, and die break and must often be further processed. The slug from the hole falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it

This Pneumatic hole Punching machine Have Pneumatic cylinder, 5/2 solenoid valve, Tool Arrangements , bolts Nut Supporting pillar.

When The air from compressor, it will be taking a decision to move the tool down. Also it will up and down movement when the obstacle crossing time that will also press sheet with the help of pneumatic cylinder, and it will be given to the  solenoid valve and then it will move up or down depends upon the air speed. The tool  movement and Up, down can be done with the help of pneumatic cylinder.
This machine  are mostly used in Industrial use to Mass Production It can punch hole rapidly and Multi size Jobs.
It Have 10 bar maximum Pressure capacity . It can clamp 1 mm to 2mm thickness work pieces.
It  cost also less, high efficiency, work loading time is less.

ADVANTAGES
Ø It reduces the manual work
Ø It reduces the production time
Ø Uniform application of the load gives perfect removing of the bearing.
Ø Damages to the bearing due to the hammering is prevented
Ø It occupies less floor space
Ø Less skilled operator is sufficient

LIMITATIONS
Ø Initial cost is high
Ø Cylinder stroke length is constant
Ø Need a separate compressor

APPLICATIONS
Ø Pressing Operation in all industries
Ø Paper punching industries
Ø Leather washer operation in all industries
Ø Punching operation also done

SYNOPSIS ON INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM

PROJECT SYNOPSIS

ON

INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM

Submitted To: Submitted By:

Abstract:

we provide project solution kits and ready projects call us 9888708401
Accident prevention has been one of the leading areas of research today. Our paper is designed to prevent accidents due to loss of control, drunken driving, and rash driving, using circuitry aided by a microcontroller kit. In our work, braking distance and the distance of the obstacle are taken into consideration along with the speed of the vehicle. The sensor helps in finding the speed of movement of the vehicle and the ultrasonic sensor senses the distance of the object in front. These sensors provide real- time inputs to the microcontroller program. Using sensor the system will sense the speed of the vehicle and with the microcontroller, it will calculate the distance required to bring the vehicle to a complete stop for that speed. Breaking motors is incorporated to activate the brakes thereby achieving automatic breaking procedures. The system helps in conjunction with the driver judgment if the driver doesn’t sense the obstacle and applies the brake at the right time then the microcontroller initiates braking motor to apply the brakes automatically. Our future work deals with incorporating real time brake shoe wear system to provide enhanced feature for the intelligent braking system. By looking at safety in terms of avoiding accidents in the first place – and then protecting occupants when a crash is unavoidable – we can prevent more accidents, save more lives, and reduce insurance and medical costs to society. Intelligent Braking System approach represents a significant shift from the traditional approach to safety, but it is fundamental to achieving the substantial benefits.

INTRODUCTION:

The Braking System is the most critical system on your vehicle. Its maintenance and proper functioning are vital to you, your family and other motorists. You should not attempt to effectuate maintenance or repair work on brakes. Servicing or repairing the braking system requires specific tools and adequate technical training. That is exactly what Auto tech Performance offers you.

How does the Braking System work

The brake pedal, on which you apply pressure to slow down or stop your vehicle, is connected by levers and rods to the brake booster. The brake booster multiplies and transfers the leverage force produced by stepping on the brake pedal to the master cylinder. In turn, the master cylinder uses that amplified leverage to pressure the brake fluid from its reservoir through hydraulic lines toward the two front and rear brakes that are mounted on the wheels of the vehicle.

The hydraulic pressure that reaches each wheel’s brake is then used to create friction to slow down and stop the vehicle: the harder you push on the pedal, the more pressure is applied to the brakes, eventually locking the wheels – that is if your vehicle if not equipped with an Anti lock Braking System (ABS).

More precisely, in conventional braking system (without ABS), the brake fluid goes out to the wheels through proportional valves that distribute pressure according to weight distribution on each wheel.

Note that brake fluid has a slippery oily feel and no smell when new. As it ages, the fluid turns smoky brown from the water and contaminants that collect in the system.

Design:

Factors considered in designing the system are:

  • Braking distance

  • Distance of obstacle in front

CONCEPT PROPOSED:

With the proposed framework these sorts of mischances can be turned away. Utilizing a HALL sensor the framework will sense the rate of the vehicle and with the microcontroller, it will compute the braking separation: that is the separation required to convey the vehicle to a complete stop for that speed. Utilizing an Optical sensor, the framework will sense any moving or stationary hindrance in front and ceaselessly monitor its separation. At the point when the driver sees a deterrent in front and backs off there is no issue. Then again, in the event that he doesn’t have any significant bearing brakes and continue the same velocity, he goes to a point where the separation of the impediment equivalents to braking separation. This is the last risk for the driver to apply the brake and back off the vehicle. In the event that regardless he goes at the same speed, the microcontroller in the framework will actuate the brakes and evade an impact by conveying the vehicle to astop. Regularly, one would not stop at a moment that the vehicle is touching the impediment. Some separation is left before the snag. The separation is additionally accounted by the microcontroller. Assume for 50 km/hr if the braking separation is say 12.28 m, then 0.5 m is included and the braking separation is computed as 12.78m.

COMPONENT LIST:

  • ULTRASONIC SENSORS

  • MICROCONTROLLER

  • TYRES

  • WIRELESS REMOTE CIRCUIT

  • DC MOTORS

  • BRAKES

  • TSOP SENSOR

Advantages:

  • It allows the driver to maintain directional stability and control over steering during braking.

  • Safe and effective

  • Automatically changes the brake fluid pressure at each wheel to maintain optimum brake performance.

  • ABS absorbs the unwanted turbulence shock waves and modulates the pulses thus permitting the wheel to continue turning under maximum braking pressure.

  • Less time and more profit.

APPLICATIONS:

  • We can use this system as safety purpose.

  • Highly accurate system for automatic braking system.

  • Less operating force is required

  • Automated operation

CONCLUSION:

The system is working efficiently in both modes forward and reverse direction. When the sensor senses any obstacle behind and in front of the vehicle, it sends signals to the control unit which allows the vehicle to stop the running wheel. Thus we have an “intelligent braking system” which helps in understanding how to achieve low cost automation.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

SYNOPSIS ON REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

SYNOPSIS

ON

REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT:

  1. we provide PROJECTS AND PROJECTS KITS contact 9888708401
    As the basic law of Physics says ‘energy can neither be created nor be destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another’. During huge amount of energy is lost to atmosphere as heat. It will be good if we could store this energy somehow which is otherwise getting wasted out and reuse it next time we started to accelerate. Regenerative braking refers to a system in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is stored temporarily, as an accumulative energy, during deceleration, and is reused as kinetic energy during acceleration or running. Regenerative braking is a small, yet very important, step toward our eventual independence from fossil fuels. These kinds of brakes allow batteries to be used for longer periods of time without the need to be plugged into an external charger. These types of brakes also extend the driving range of fully electric vehicles. Regenerative braking is away to extend range of the electric vehicles. In many hybrid vehicles cases, this system is also applied hybrid vehicles to improve fuel economy. A normal car is only about 20% efficient, meaning some 80% of the energy it expends is wasted as heat created by friction. Regenerative braking could reclaim as much as half of that wasted energy, which equates into more motion produced by the fuel we are paying for instead of using that fuel to create heat that is being dissipated uselessly into the environment.

INTRODUCTION

Brakes are employed to stop or retard the motion of any moving body. Thus, in automobiles the brakes are having the most important function to perform. In conventional braking system the motion is retarded or stopped by absorbing kinetic energy by friction, by making the contact of the moving body with frictional rubber pad (called brake liner) which causes the absorption of kinetic energy, and this is wasted in form of heat in surroundings. Each time we brake, the momentum of vehicle is absorbed that it has gained by it and to re-accelerate the vehicle we have to start from the scratch to redevelop that momentum by using themore power from an engine .Thus, it will ultimately result in huge waste of energy.As the basic law of Physics says ‘energy can neither be created nor be destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another’. It will be good if we could store this energy somehow which is otherwise getting wasted out and reuse it next time we started to accelerate. That’s the basic concept of regenerative (“regent”)brakes, which provide braking for the system when needed by converting the available energy to some usable form. These are widely used in electric trains and the latest electric cars. Regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used immediately or stored until needed. Thus, the generated electricity during the braking is fed back into the supply system (in case of electric trains), whereas in battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored in a battery

Regenerative Braking System bank of capacitors for later use. Energy may also be stored by compressing air or in a rotating flywheel. An Energy Regeneration Brake was developed in 1967 for the AMC Amitron. This was a completely battery powered urban concept car whose batteries were recharged by regenerative braking, thus increasing the range of the automobile. Many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this technique to extend the range of the battery pack. Examples include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, the Vectrixelectric maxi-scooter, and the Chevrolet Volt.

NEED FOR REGENERATIVE BRAKES

The regenerative braking system delivers a number of significant advantages over a car that only has friction brakes. In low-speed, stop- and-go traffic where little deceleration is required; the regenerative braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force. This vastly improves fuel economy with a vehicle, and further enhances the attractiveness of vehicles using regenerative braking for city driving. At higher speeds, too, regenerative braking has been shown to contribute to improved fuel economy – by as much as 20%.Consider a heavy loaded truck having very few stops on the road. It is operated-near maximum engine efficiency. The 80% of the energy produced is utilized to overcome the rolling and aerodynamic road forces. The energy wasted in applying brake is about 2%. Also its brake specific fuel consumption is 5%.Now consider a vehicle, which is operated in the main city where traffic is a major problem here one has to apply brake frequently. For such vehicles the wastage of energy by application of brake is about 60% to 65%.

BASIC IDEA OF REGENERATIVE BRAKES

Concept of this regenerative brake is better understood from bicycle fitted with Dynamo. If our bicycle has a dynamo (a small electricity generator) on it for powering the lights, we’ll know it’s harder to peddle when the dynamo is engaged than when it’s switched off. That’s because some of our peddling energy is being”stolen” by the dynamo and turned into electrical energy in the lights. If we’re going along at speed and we suddenly stop peddling and turn on the dynamo, it’ll bring us to a stop more quickly than we would normally, for the same reason: it’s stealing our kinetic energy. Now imagine a bicycle with a dynamo that’s 100 times bigger and more powerful. In theory, it could bring our bike to a halt relatively quickly by converting our kinetic energy into electricity which we could store in battery and use again later. And that’s the basic idea behind regenerative brakes. Electric trains, cars, and other electric vehicles are powered by electric motors connected to batteries. When we’re driving along, energy flows from the batteries to the motors, turning the wheels and providing us with the kinetic energy we need to move. When we stop and hit the brakes, the whole process goes into reverse:

Regenerative Braking System electronic circuits cut the power to the motors. Now, our kinetic energy and momentum makes the wheels turn the motors, so the motors work like generator sand start producing electricity instead of consuming it. Power flows back from these motor-generators to the batteries, charging them up. So a good proportion of the energy we lose by braking is returned to the batteries and can be reused when we start off again. In practice, regenerative brakes take time to slow things down, so most vehicles that use them also have ordinary (friction) brakes working alongside (that’s also a good idea in case the regenerative brakes fail).That’s one reason why regenerative brakes don’t save 100 percent of our braking energy.

The main components of this system

  • Engine

  • Motor/Generator

  • Batteries

  • Electronic control system

BLOCK DIAGRAM

regenrative

ADVANTAGES:

1.Energy Conservation:

The flywheel absorbs energy when braking via a clutch system slowing the car down and speeding up the wheel. To accelerate, another clutch system connects the flywheel to the drive train, speeding up the car and slowing down the flywheel. Energy is therefore conserved rather than wasted as heat and light which is what normally happens in the contemporary shoe/disc system.

2. WEAR REDUCTION

An electric drive train also allows for regenerative breaking which increases Efficiency and reduces wear on the vehicle brakes. In regenerative raking, when the motor is not receiving power from the battery pack, it resists the turning of the wheels, capturing some of the energy of motion as if it were a generator and returning that energy to the battery pack. In mechanical brakes; lessening wear and extending brake life is not possible. This reduces the use of use the brake.

3. Fuel Consumption:

The fuel consumption of the conventional vehicles and regenerative braking system vehicles was evaluated over a course of various fixed urban driving schedules. The results are compared as shown in figure. Representing the significant cost saying to its owner, it has been proved the regenerative braking is very fuel-efficient.

4. Braking is not total loss:

Conventional brakes apply friction to convert a vehicle’s kinetic energy into heat. In energy terms, therefore, braking is a total loss: once heat is generated, it is very difficult to reuse. The regenerative braking system, however, slows a vehicle down in a different way

DISADVATAGES:

Regenerative Braking System comes into its own when you’re driving in the city, and spending a good deal of your time braking. You will still use more fuel in the city for each mile you drive than on the highway, though. (Thermodynamics tells us that all inefficiency comes from heat generation. For instance, when you brake, brake pedals heat up and quantity of heat, or energy, is lost to the outside world. Friction in the engine produces heat in the same way. Heat energy, also, has higher entropy than, say, electric, meaning that it is less ordered.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Synopsis On Electromagnetic Clutch System

Introduction:

Clutch:

Clutch is basically a mechanism which is being used for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. Clutches are being used particularly in those devices that have two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the second drives the another device. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed, or be decoupled and spin at different speeds.

The clutch disc(center) spins with the fly wheel (left). To disengage, the lever is pulled, causing a white pressure plate to disengage the green clutch disc from turning the drive shaft, which turns within the thrust bearing ring of the lever. All the 3 rings will never connect, with any gaps.

Requirement of a clutch:

  • Torque transmission: The clutch should be able to transmit maximum torque of

the engine.

  • Gradual engagement: The clutch should engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks.

  • Heat dissipation: The clutch should be able to dissipate large amount of heat

which is generated during the clutch operation due to friction.

  • Dynamic balancing: The clutch should be dynamically balanced. This is

particularly required in the case of high speed engine clutches.

  • Vibrating damping: The clutch should have suitable mechanism to damp

vibrations and to eliminate noise produced during the power transmission.

  • Size:- The clutch should be as small as possible in size so that it will occupy

minimum space.

  • Free pedal play: The clutch should have free pedal play in order to reduce

effective clamping load on the carbon thrust bearing and wear on it.

  • Easy in operation: The clutch should be easy to operate requiring as little

exertion as possible on the part of the driver.

  • Lightness: The driven member of the clutch should be made as light as possible

so that it will not continue to rotate for any length of time after the clutch has

been disengaged

Main Parts of the clutch:

The main parts of the clutch is divided into three parts :

  • Driving members:

It consist of a fly wheel mounted on the engine crankshaft.

Flywheel couple with clutch

  • Driven members:

The driven members are consist of the disc or plate, called the clutch plate.

Pressure plate and clutch plate

  • Operating members:

Operating members are consist of a foot pedal, linkage, release or throw out bearing, release levers and springs.

Pedal, Bearing and spring

Electromagnetic clutch:

Electromagnetic clutches operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. That is why they are called electromechanical clutches. They are most suitable for remote operation since no mechanical linkages are required to control their engagement, providing fast and smoothing operation.

However, because the activation energy dissipates as heat in the electromagnetic actuator when the clutch is engaged, there is a risk of overheating. Consequently, the maximum operating temperature of the clutch is limited by the temperature rating of the insulation of the electromagnet.

  • In this type of clutch, the flywheel consists of winding from the battery or dynamo.

  • When the current passes through the winding. it produced an electromagnetic field which attracts the pressure plate.

  • Thereby engaging the clutch.

  • When the supply is cut-off the clutch is disengaged.

  • The gear lever consists of a clutch release switch.

  • When the driver holds the gear lever to change the gear, the switch is operated

cutting off the current to the winding which causes the clutch disengaged.

  • At low speed when the dynamo output is low, the clutch is not firmly engaged.

  • Therefore, three springs are also provided on the pressure plate which helps the

clutch engaged firmly at low speed also.

Major Parts of the project:

  1. Driving motor

  2. Pressure plate

  3. Clutch plate

  4. Pedal

  5. Steel shaft

  6. bearing

  7. Frame

  8. Gang box

  9. Dc battery

  10. Gen stopper

Working of Electromagnetic clutch:

The main components of EM clutch are a coil shell, an armature, rotor, and hub. The armature plate is lined with friction coating. The coil is placed behind the rotor. When the clutch activated the electric circuit energizes the coil, it generates a magnetic field. The rotor portion of clutch gets magnetized. When the magnetic field exceeds the air gap between rotor and armature and then it pulls the armature toward the rotor. The frictional force generated at the contact surface transfer the torque. Engagement time depends on the strength of magnetic fields, inertia, and air gap. When voltage is removed from the coil, the contact is gone. In most design a spring is used to hold back the armature to provide an air gap when current is removed.

Untitled

Application of electromagnetic clutch:

  • They can be used for remote application because they do not require linkage to actuate the clutch. They are used in printing machinery, conveyor drives, copier machines and factory automation. In an automobile, it replaces clutch pedal by a simple switch button. A smaller EM clutch is used to drive the compressor of air conditioning system.

  • The complicated linkage is not required to control clutch.

SYNOPSIS ON BATTERY OPERATED SOIL LEVELER

SYNOPSIS

ON

BATTERY OPERATED SOIL LEVELER

Introduction:

In a continuously develop world, many things kept coming out as if there is nothing impossible anymore for something to exist. This may be part of how and why people manage to adapt to their new lifestyle. Taking a lifestyle as reason how people manage their work in less time. We know there day by day population is increased. So construction work is also increasing. When any construction area we make floor then firstly we fill there soil, pieces of stone, pieces of brick and to level this material we hammer that material. For this we use a heavy weight hammer. In this project we are making a battery operated automatic hammer.

In this project we are using dc battery to operate dc motor, the work of dc motor is to rotate the CAM. The hammer is attracted to the CAM and with the rotational movement of the CAM the hammer moves UP and Down.

Component List:

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • CAM

  • HAMMER

  • SWITCH

  • METALLIC STAND

METHODOLOGY BEING USED:

CAM TECHNOLOGY:

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device that rotates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.

Displacement diagram

Certain cams can be characterized by their displacement diagrams, which reflect the changing position a roller follower (a shaft with a rotating wheel at the end) would make as the cam rotates about an axis. These diagrams relate angular position, usually in degrees, to the radial displacement experienced at that position. Displacement diagrams are traditionally presented as graphs with non-negative values. A simple displacement diagram illustrates the follower motion at a constant velocity rise followed by a similar return with a dwell in between as depicted in figure 2. The rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, and return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center.

However, the most common type is in the valve actuators in internal combustion engines. Here, the cam profile is commonly symmetric and at rotational speeds generally met with, very high acceleration forces develop. Ideally, a convex curve between the onset and maximum position of lift reduces acceleration, but this requires impractically large shaft diameters relative to lift. Thus, in practice, the points at which lift begins and ends mean that a tangent to the base circle appears on the profile.

APPLICATIONS

  • Base on the application of the device, I would say that it is very useful for small industrials, construction department and more.

ADVANTAGES

  • Efficiency increased

  • Time saving

  • Output fast

  • Manpower saving

SYNOPSIS ON BATTERY OPERATED SOIL LEVELER

SYNOPSIS

ON

BATTERY OPERATED SOIL LEVELER

Introduction:

In a continuously develop world, many things kept coming out as if there is nothing impossible anymore for something to exist. This may be part of how and why people manage to adapt to their new lifestyle. Taking a lifestyle as reason how people manage their work in less time. We know there day by day population is increased. So construction work is also increasing. When any construction area we make floor then firstly we fill there soil, pieces of stone, pieces of brick and to level this material we hammer that material. For this we use a heavy weight hammer. In this project we are making a battery operated automatic hammer.

In this project we are using dc battery to operate dc motor, the work of dc motor is to rotate the CAM. The hammer is attracted to the CAM and with the rotational movement of the CAM the hammer moves UP and Down.

Component List:

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • CAM

  • HAMMER

  • SWITCH

  • METALLIC STAND

METHODOLOGY BEING USED:

CAM TECHNOLOGY:

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device that rotates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.

Displacement diagram

Certain cams can be characterized by their displacement diagrams, which reflect the changing position a roller follower (a shaft with a rotating wheel at the end) would make as the cam rotates about an axis. These diagrams relate angular position, usually in degrees, to the radial displacement experienced at that position. Displacement diagrams are traditionally presented as graphs with non-negative values. A simple displacement diagram illustrates the follower motion at a constant velocity rise followed by a similar return with a dwell in between as depicted in figure 2. The rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, and return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center.

However, the most common type is in the valve actuators in internal combustion engines. Here, the cam profile is commonly symmetric and at rotational speeds generally met with, very high acceleration forces develop. Ideally, a convex curve between the onset and maximum position of lift reduces acceleration, but this requires impractically large shaft diameters relative to lift. Thus, in practice, the points at which lift begins and ends mean that a tangent to the base circle appears on the profile.

APPLICATIONS

  • Base on the application of the device, I would say that it is very useful for small industrials, construction department and more.

ADVANTAGES

  • Efficiency increased

  • Time saving

  • Output fast

  • Manpower saving

SYNOPSIS on automatic Carjack

SYNOPSIS

on

automatic Carjack”

ABSTRACT

The work in this study is in general described, an electrically operated car jack. ,. The prototype includes motor powered by the dc battery. The motor with Sprocket and chain system will be the lifting mechanism. When the car needed to be lifted, give power supply to the dc motor through two way switch circuit. The common problem faced by the current available car jacks in the market is it is manually operated and needed physical effort to lift the vehicle. All the analysis and results such as the torque needed and gearing ratio is important in this project before needed to be developed. The developed automatic car jack is base on the result and analysis part to lift a Kancil car. The stress and

Von Mises stress are additional analysis on the gearing parts to know how much stress applied on the system to avoid failure. The developed automatic car jack is a success

which it able to lift a kancil’s car according to the set scopes.

INTRODUCTION:

A Carjack is a mechanical device that can increase the magnitude of an effort force. In this project we make a jack which will work automatically. In this project first of all we will make a Carjack with the help of bevel gears types some mechanism. Carjack is a very useful thing today but there are many heavy vehicle so working which a Carjack is very difficult to every person. So by keeping this concept in our mind we have made an automatic Carjack which is controlled by motor. We use a DC motor because the direction of rotation is very easily of Dc motor which is required for Carjack is very must.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Available jacks present difficulties for the elderly, women and are especially disadvantageous under adverse weather conditions. These presently available jacks further require the operator to remain in prolonged bent or squatting position to operate the jack. Doing work in a bent or squatting position for a period of time is not ergonomic to human body. It will give back problem in due of time. Moreover, the safety features are also not enough for operator to operate the present jack. Present car jack do not have a lock or extra beam to withstand the massive load of the car. This is for the safety precaution in case if the screw break. Furthermore, available jacks are typically large, heavy and also difficult to store, transport, carry or move into the proper position under an automobile. Suppose car jacks must be easy to use for pregnant women or whoever had problem with the tire in the middle of nowhere. The purpose of this project is to encounter these problems. An electric car jack which has a frame type of design by using electric from the car lighter will be developed. Operator only needs to press the button from the controller without working in a bent or squatting position for a long period of time to change the tire.

OBJECTIVES

In order to fulfill the needs of present car jack, some improvement must be made base on the problems statement:

.1. To design a car jack that is safe, reliable and able to raise and lower the height level.

2. To develop a car jack that is powered by dc power and fully automated with a button system.

COMPONENT LIST

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • FREE WHEELS

  • CHAIN

  • CAR JACK

  • METTALIC STAND

  • TWO WAY SWITCHES

Overview

motorised jack with AC motor

WORKING:

When we supply dc voltage to two way switches, the dc motor starts rotating. As the freewheels are connected to the dc motor, hence the chain starts moving according to the speed of the motor. CAR JACK is attached with the second sprocket gear with the movement of the second freewheel it operates the car jack as well.

APPLICATIONS:

1. The developed automatic car jack can only withstand below 1000kg of load

II. The developed automatic car jack must be operated on a flat surface

III. The developed automatic car jack is only a prototype and not readily functioning as commercial product.

IV. The design is based on current scissor jack in the market.

V. The developed automatic car jack is only for normal person

VI. The developed automatic car jack can only work by using the DC POWER.

CONCLUSION

If you have the space and you do your own maintenance and repair, you’re going to love having a table lift. The table lifts made by Handy, though a bit heavy and space hungry, are strong, well built, simple to use and should last a lifetime. They require only a periodic drop of oil and shot of grease as maintenance. Sure, there are some table lifts that are lighter and more compact, but when I work on my bike I want something that’s solid, sturdy and versatile. And if I can demonstrate that it can be used for other purposes, it’s easier to sell to the Mrs. If the cost is a stumbling point, you could do like I’ve done in the past and go in with some friends on the cost. Just be sure to lobby real hard to get it to reside in your garage

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Synopsis on Solar Spray Pump

Synopsis

on

Solar Spray Pump

Introduction:

Spraying of pesticides is an important task in agriculture for protecting the crops from insects. Farmers mainly use hand operated or fuel operated spray pump for this task. This conventional sprayer causes user fatigue due to excessive bulky and heavy construction. This motivated us to design and fabricate a model that is basically trolly based solar sprayer In our design, here we can eliminate the back mounting of sprayer ergonomically it is not good for farmers health point of view during spraying, in this way here we can reduce the users fatigue level. There will be elimination of engine of fuel operated spray pump by which there will be reduction in vibrations and noise. The elimination of fuel will make our spraying system Eco-friendly. So with this background, we are trying to design and construct a solar powered spray pump system. Now days there are non conventional energy sources are widely used. The energy which is available from the sun is in nature at free of cost. In India solar Energy is available around 8 months in year .so it can be used in spraying operation. Solar pesticide sprayer can give less tariff or price in effective spraying. Solar energy is absorbed by the solar panel which contains photovoltaic cells. The conversion of the solar energy into electrical energy is done by these cells. This converted energy utilizes to store the voltage in the DC battery and that battery further used for driving the spray pump.

In India there are different different types of sprayer can be used according to the grouth of different types of crops as fallow:

1)Hand operated sprayer.

2)Engine operated sprayer/fuel operated sprayer.

3)Electric motor pump sprayer.

1)Hand operated sprayer

hand operated sprayer is operated by hand so that the discomfort occur while spraying.

2)Engine operated sprayer/fuel operated sprayer

As we know that engine operated sprayer is working on petrol, petrol is costly fuel so in farmer economical point of view it is not good.

3)Electric motor pump sprayer

Electric motor pump sprayer is used electricity for charging battery in this way the pump can e drive according to battery charging, In the above sprayer there are some drawbacks such as

1)hand operated sprayer can not be use continuously spraying. We can say that it can not be use for long time.

2)engine operated sprayer can be operated on petrol so it is not possible to use every farmer.

3)here 70% of people can be live in rural areas. in rural areas there are insufficient electricity. so it is not possible to use electric motor pump for spraying.

Objective:

  • Spray pump with efficiency

  • Easy to work with spray pump

Methodology:

  • Problem Identification

  • Solution for the problem

  • Selection of components

  • Implementation

  • Design Calculation

  • Results

Components List:

  • 1. Tank

  • 2. Solar panel

  • 3. DC Motor

  • 4. DC Battery

  • 5. Nozzle type

  • 6. Connecting pipe/boom

  • 7. charge controller

  • 8.Trolly Assembly

  • 9. Mounting element

Overview

Solar water Pump 4500
Solar water Pump 4500

 

Advantages:

  • More economical

  • Easy to clean and maintain

  • It is a renewable energy source

  • It does not create air pollutant & noise

  • Easy to handle

  • Do not required fuel hence cost reduce for spraying

Future scope:

Electrical system can be added with the spray pump for rare applications.

CONCLUSION:

The solar powered agricultural pesticide sprayer has been fabricated according to the design parameters My project aim was to confront the farmer while spraying due to trolly based sprayed here we can eliminate back mounting of sprayer and it is gud for farmer health point of view Economically

SYNOPSIS ON BATTERY OPERATED HACKSAW

SYNOPSIS

ON

BATTERY OPERATED HACKSAW

INTRODUCTION:

We have pleasure in introducing our new project “AUTOMATIC BATTERY OPERATED HACKSAW”, which is fully equipped by wiper motor. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and designed for Machines. The HACKSAW system is a fully automation project. This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased.

Hacksaw

A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface.

Blades

Blades are available in standardized lengths, 10 or 12 inches (254 or 305 mm) for a standard hand hacksaw. “Junior” hacksaws are 6 inches (152 mm) long. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.

TYPES OF BLADES:

1.High Carbon Steel

2.Low Alloy Steel

3.Bi-Metallic Steel

4.High Speed Steel

Motorised hacksaw solar operated
Motorised hacksaw solar operated

Component List:

  • HACKSAW

  • MODEL FRAME

  • SHAFTS

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

ADVANTEGES:

  • Weight of machine less

  • It reduce the work of labor

  • Easy to make because of simple construction

  • High production rate.

  • Cost is less

APPLICATIONS:

  • In Engineering industry

  • In Construction industry

  • In workshop

CONCLUSION:

We have learnt how the theoretical design is possible is possible in practical. Other Hacksaw machine is only cut one part at one time but this machine cut the four part at a time, this hacksaw machine has lighter weight as compared to other machine. The cost of machine is less and easy to operate so it affordable for all industry.

Future Scope:

We can try to change the speed of motor cutting the different metal at various speed if it possible. So we can make the changes as well in the project as per the requirements.

Synopsis on Gear Less Power Transmission

Introduction:

Mechanical Project on Gear less Transmission

Gear-less transmission is a compact and portable equipment, which is skillful and having something in practice in the transmitting power at right angle without manufactured and can be made in less time. This project uses EL-Bow mechanism which is an ingenious link mechanism of slider and kinematic chain principle. This is also called as “gear less transmission mechanism” and is very useful for transmitting motion at right angles.

This mechanism is for transmitting motions at any fixed angle between the driving and driven shaft. The synthesis of this mechanism would reveal that it comprises of a number of pins would be between 3 to 8 the more the pins the smoother the operation.

These pins slide inside hollow cylinders thus formatting a sliding pair

Our mechanism has 3 such sliding pairs. These cylinders are placed in a hollow pipe and are fastened at 120* to each other. This whole assemble is mounted on brackets wooden table. Power is supplied by an electric motor.

WORKING:

In this project rotational motion around an axis usually involves gears, which can quickly become complicated, inflexible and clumsy look. So, instead of using gears this technology elegantly converts rotational motion using a set of cylindrical bars bents to 90 degree, in a clever, simple and smooth process that translates strong rotational force even in restricted spaces.

A gear less transmission is provided for transmitting rotational velocity from an input connected to three bent links. Both the input shaft and housing have rotational axes.

The rotational axes of the input shaft is disposed at an angle of 90 degree with respect to the rotational axes of the housing. As a result, rotation of the input shaft results in a processional motion of the axes of the bent link. The rotary and reciprocating motion of bent link transmit rotation of prime mover to 90 degree without any gear system to an output shaft without gears. The transmission includes the input shaft.

gearless power transmission
gearless power transmission

The working of the mechanism is understood by the diagram. An unused form of transmission of power on shaft located at an angle. Motion is transmitted from driving the driven shaft through the roads which are bent to confirm to the angles between the shafts. These roads are located at in the holes equally spaced around a circle and they are free to slide in & out as the shaft revolves. This type of drive is specially suitable where quite operation at high speed is essential but only recommended for high duty.

The operation of this transmission is apparent by the action of one rod. During a revolution. If we assume that driving shaft “A” is revolving as indicated by arrow the driven shaft “B” will rotate counter clock wise. As shaft “A” turns through a half revolution “C” shown in the inner and most effective driving position slides out of both shafts A & B.

The first half revolution and rod “C” then will be at the top then during the remaining half this rod “C” slide inwards until it again reaches to inner most position, in the meanwhile the other rods have of course passed through the same cycle of movements all rods are successively sliding inwards and outwards.

The right angle transmission drive can be applied also to shafts located at intermediate angle between 0 degree to 90 degree. In making this transmission, it is essential to have holes for a given rod located accurately in the same holes must be equally spaced in radial and circumferential directions, be parallel to each rod should be bent at angle at which the shafts are to be located. If the holes drilled in the ends of the shafts have “blind” or “closed” ends, there ought to be a small vent at the bottom of each rod hole for the escape of air compressed by the pumping action of rods. These holes are useful for oiling to avoid blind holes shaft may have enlarged port of shoulder.

This transmission may be provided centrally and in line with the axes of each shaft and provided with a circular groove at each rod or a cross pin to permit rotation of the shaft about the rod simply active as a retaining device for shipping and handling purpose.

At a time we are showing two applications of this mechanism.

  • As a wood cutting machine, the cutter is attached on the output shaft when motion is transmitted through mechanism to output shaft the shaft will start to rotate at adjusted speed. The speed is adjusted by means of pulley. The cutters will also start to rotate along with the shaft through slot introduces in the table for free rotation of cutter edges in table. Now the feed given to wooden rods or plywood to cut in desire shape and size

  • As an air compressor, the compressor is also introduced in the project, when the pins inside the drilled holes are reciprocates as well as revolves along the axis of cylinder it gives the compressor effect. Among the three pins when first pin goes at inner dead center it sucks the air then it start to move at outer dead center by revolving, It compresses the air against seal and cylinder head disc and does simultaneously by three pins and we can get continue discharge of air the quantity

  • Mechanical seal is defined as a device which seals by virtue of axial contact pressure between two relatively flat surfaces in a plane right angle to the axis of the shaft. The seal used in EL-BOW mechanical compressor is stationary type. It is place between cylinder and cylinder head.

Machine Design:

The general steps to be followed in the designing of the machine are as followed.

  1. Preparation of the statement of the problem indicating the purpose of the machine.

  2. Selection of mechanism to be used.

  3. Selection of the material.

  4. Determining the size of component drawing.

  5. Preparation of component drawing.

  6. Manufacturing and assembling the machine.

  7. Testing of the machine for functioning.

Manufacturing of Parts:

  • Primary shaping: Preliminary shaping of machine components.

  • Machining Process: Final shape of machine components on lathe.

  • Surface finishing: polishing, lapping, filing.

  • Joining: Arc welding

  • Special operation: Lubrication, adjustment.

Applications:

  • It can be used as an extension for a socket wrench.

  • The mechanism is used for multiple spindle drilling operation called “Gang Drilling”

  • Also used for angular drilling between 0 to 90 degree position.

  • Lubrication pump for C.N.C lathe machines.

  • Air blower for electronic and computer machine

  • The EL-BOW mechanism is used for movement of periscope in submarines, In the year 1685 for the famous London tower clock.

  • Driving for all kind of four faced tower clocks.

  • This mechanism is very useful for reaching a drive at a clumsy location

Limitation:

  • Does not work at very low starting torque.

  • Improper hole drilling could pose much problem.

  • Sudden load would cause mechanism breakdown.

  • Links are to be replaced after certain cycle time.

  • Speed ration is always content 1:1.

Future Scope:

  • Torque bearing capacity can be improved.

  • Flexible bent links can be used.

  • Has a bright future in automation and robotics.

  • Can be used in automobile industry in near future.

Conclusion:

  • The model works correctly as per the design.

  • With the help of this system, we can efficiently reduce the cost in power transmission.

  • Further advancement in this technology can be made.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST