The world today is moving ahead at a very fast pace. Some of the very common examples of fast moving objects are airplanes, high speed cars and many more. In our everyday life we come across many fast moving vehicles and so it is very important to measure the speed of these vehicles.
This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased. Motor operated hacksaw consists of hacksaw frame, transformer, Control Unit, wiper motor, shafts and bench vice. It follows the principle of scotch yoke mechanism.
A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface.
Blades are available in standardized lengths, 10 or 12 inches (254 or 305 mm) for a standard hand hacksaw. “Junior” hacksaws are 6 inches (152 mm) long. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.
The pitch of the teeth can be anywhere from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch (tpi) for a hand blade, with as few as three tpi for a large power hacksaw blade. The blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material. As hacksaw teeth are so small, they are set in a “wave” set. As for other saws they are set from side to side to provide a kerf or clearance when sawing, but the set of a hacksaw changes gradually from tooth to tooth in a smooth curve, rather than alternate teeth set left and right. Hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. Early blades were of carbon steel, now termed ‘low alloy’ blades, and were relatively soft and flexible. They avoided breakage, but also wore out rapidly. Except where cost is a particular concern, this type is now obsolete. ‘Low alloy’ blades are still the only type available for the Junior hacksaw, which limits the usefulness of this otherwise popular saw. For several decades now, hacksaw blades have used high speed steel for their teeth, giving greatly improved cutting and tooth life. These blades were first available in the ‘All-hard’ form which cut accurately but were extremely brittle. This limited their practical use to bench work on a workpiece that was firmly clamped in a vice. A softer form of high speed steel blade was also available, which wore well and resisted breakage, but was less stiff and so less accurate for precise sawing. Since the 1980s, bi-metal blades have been used to give the advantages of both forms, without risk of breakage. A strip of high speed steel along the tooth edge is electron beam welded to a softer spine. As the price of these has dropped to be comparable with the older blades, their use is now almost universal. Hacksaw blade specifications: The most common blade is the 12 inch or 300 mm length. Hacksaw blades have two holes near the ends for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers to the center to center distance between these mounting holes.
The blades which are generally used and complete all the aspects for cutting materials are as follow:
1.High Carbon Steel
2.Low Alloy Steel
4.High Speed Steel
MATHEDOLOGY BEING USED
A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device that rotates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.
Certain cams can be characterized by their displacement diagrams, which reflect the changing position a roller follower (a shaft with a rotating wheel at the end) would make as the cam rotates about an axis. These diagrams relate angular position, usually in degrees, to the radial displacement experienced at that position. Displacement diagrams are traditionally presented as graphs with non-negative values. A simple displacement diagram illustrates the follower motion at a constant velocity rise followed by a similar return with a dwell in between as depicted in figure 2. The rise is the motion of the follower away from the cam center, dwell is the motion where the follower is at rest, and return is the motion of the follower toward the cam center.
However, the most common type is in the valve actuators in internal combustion engines. Here, the cam profile is commonly symmetric and at rotational speeds generally met with, very high acceleration forces develop. Ideally, a convex curve between the onset and maximum position of lift reduces acceleration, but this requires impractically large shaft diameters relative to lift. Thus, in practice, the points at which lift begins and ends mean that a tangent to the base circle appears on the profile.
Weight of machine less
It reduce the work of labor
Easy to make because of simple construction
High production rate.
Cost is less
In Engineering industry
In Construction industry