Tag Archives: mechanical jalandhar projects

FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATED WOOD CUTTER

SYNOPSIS:-

This is the new innovative and effective concept mainly used for wood cutting field. It is simple in construction and the working process is very easy. And it is mostly used in the timber field for the cutting of wood, trees, wooden pieces and etc.., The project aims at designing a system which makes the Wood cutter based motor running through solar energy.

INTRODUCTION:-

Power plays a great role wherever man lives and works. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with the increase in the use of power. The electricity requirement of the world is increasing at an alarming rate due to industrial growth, increased and extensive use of electrical gadgets. According to world energy report, we get around 80% of our energy from conventional fossil fuels like oil (36%), natural gas (21%) and coal (23%). It is well known that the time is not so far when all these sources will be completely exhausted. So, alternative sources should be used to avoid energy crisis in the nearby future. The best alternative source is solar energy. A solar panel is a large flat rectangle, typically somewhere between the size of a radiator and the size of a door, made up of many individual solar energy collectors called solar cells covered with a protective sheet of glass. The cells, each of which is about the size of an adult’s palm, are usually octagonal and colored bluish black. Just like the cells in a battery, the cells in a solar panel are designed to generate electricity; but where a battery’s cells make electricity from chemicals, a solar panel’s cells generate power by capturing sunlight instead. They are sometimes called photovoltaic cells because they use sunlight (“photo” comes from the Greek word for light) to make electricity (the word “voltaic” is a reference to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta). The system depending on the charging circuit the motor can be controlled. The solar power stores the energy to a battery and then runs the motor.

Multipurpose Machine drawings

Multipurpose machine drilling grinding cutting shaping

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Solar Based Reaper project mechanical engineering students jallandhar ludhiana phagwara

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Air Engine mechanical projects ludhiana ambala chandigarh jallandhar patiala bathinda phagwara

IMG-20160525-WA0003Air Engine

shocker based electricity generation using rack and pinion

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Synopsis on speed brakers

Sysynopsis

on

speed brakers

Introduction:

Is anyone happy with the current situation of electricity in india? So this is our small step to try to improve this situation by our project. An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. An energy crisis may be referred to as an oil crisis, petroleum crisis, energy shortage, electricity shortage electricity crisis. Some days before we had seen a torch which lights up when a mechanical force is applied on it by our hand. The basic principle what we noticed in this is conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy. So our project is to generate electricity from the speed breakers by the applying the same principle. We are trying to use the mechanical stress which is applied on the speed breaker to the electric current. By this approach we can able to use unuseful mechanical stress for the useful purpose. And thus we can use this generated electricity to lights up villages near highway. “next time on the road, don’t scoff at the speed breakers. They could actually light up small villages off the highway

How the speed breaker are useful for thegeneration of ELECTRICITY?

Next time on the roads, don’t scoff at the speed-breakers. They could actually light up small villages off the highway.

An amateur innovator in Guwahati has developed a simple contraption that can generate power when a vehicle passes over a speed breaker. Kankan Gogol, a small time businessman, has developed a mechanism to generate power by converting the potential energy generated by a vehicle going up on a speed breaker into kinetic energy. The innovation has caught the eye of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati, which will fund a pilot project to generate electricity from speed-breakers.

The idea is basic physics. Gogol has welded five-metre-long metal plates into the speed-breaker instead of the conventional bitumen-and-stone-chip rumble strip. The plates are movable and inclined with the help of a spring-loaded hydraulic system. The fulcrum-attached plates are pushed down when a vehicle moves over them and bounce back to original position as it passes.

“When the vehicle moves over the inclined plates, it gains height resulting in increase in potential energy, which is wasted in a conventional rumble strip,” Gogol says. “When the plates come down, they crank a lever fitted to a ratchet-wheel type mechanism. This in turn rotates a geared shaft loaded with recoil springs. The output of this shaft is coupled to a dynamo to convert kinetic energy into electricity,” he explains.

IIt Guwahati has evaluated the machine and recommended it to the Assam ministry of power for large scale funding. A K Das, a professor at IIt’s design department says it is a ‘very viable proposition’ to harness thousands of mega watts of electricity untapped across the country every day.

“A vehicle weighing 1,000 kg going up a height of 10 cm on such a rumble strip produces approximately 0.98 kilowatt power. So one such speed-breaker on a busy highway, where about 100 vehicles pass every minute, about one kilo watt of electricity can be produced every single minute. The figure will be huge at the end of the day,” he said.

The Assam power ministry is expected to back the IIT pilot project.

Das says a storage module like an inverter will have to be fitted to each such rumble strip to store this electricity. The cost of electricity generation and storage per mega watt from speed-breakers will be nearly Rs 1 Crore as opposed to about Rs 8 Crore in thermal or hydro power stations

Material Required:

  • Angle frame
  • Connecting Wires
  • LED
  • 12 VOLTS battery
  • mild steel
  • welding arc
  • dynamo
  • pulley

Working:

When we apply brake, it produces some mechanical friction. We are using a dynamo over here to convert the mechanical energy into the electrical energy. So when ever we will apply some friction will be produced and the dynamo simultaneously will convert the energy into electrical. Further it will give electrical power to the led’s and the led’s will glow up.

APPLICATIONS:

We can use the speed braking system to produce electricity energy in trucks as well as bus system. We can also use this constructive electrical energy to recharge the battery as well. It can also be used to provide the power supply to the indicators so that if anyone is coming behind the vehicle will get an indication of the brake. It will help in reducing the accidental cases as well.

 

ADVANTAGES

Money saving

Time Saving

Efficiency increasing

More output in less time

CONCLUSION:

After all the testing we are successful in representing our idea of the project in practical way. The project on which we are working is working with very ease and efficient way.The speed barker is working in a right manner and it is producing energy when we put the brake some friction is produced by applying brake on it. A dynamo is being used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Dynamo delivers electrical energy hence it gives electrical output to the led. After getting the power supply from it the led’s glows up.

Merits of power GENERATION THROUGH speed breaker

At a very first glance, this project holds very less space to spread out it over the any road without encountering any problem of maintenance alike hydro power plant, steam power plant, etc. It’s taking very less floor area without getting the traffic obstructed on the road. On the other hand, it is even very suitable and convenient as simple energy conversion from very, not so complex, simple mechanism of cog wheels which are connected to motor assembly e.g. Crank-Shaft, Roller, and Rack- Pinion. But we are using Roller Mechanism.

Synopsis on pneumatic hammer

Synopsis 

on 

pneumatic hammer

A pneumatic hammer is more commonly referred to as a jackhammer or power hammer. They are of the same family and do roughly the same thing on differing scales. If you are driving through a big city then you have most likely seen them used by city workers as they break up a road for some reason unknown to you. A pneumatic hammer is typically connected to an air compressor that feeds into the device. Once you apply pressure to the triggers the blade begins to move at a very rapid RPM up and down through the shaft. This generates enough thrust to break apart most materials. The pneumatic hammer can be found in many sizes and speeds and some can have their maximum speed adjusted to your needs. The article that follows will go over several things that a pneumatic hammer is used for.

Road Construction

A pneumatic hammer is one of the main tools of workmen that are contracted the job of road repair. They often use the pneumatic hammer to chisel away the road to create an even surface in which to lay asphalt. They are also used to break through the road to the sewers below in order to create new manholes or access points. What many people do not realize is that roads are made from layers upon layers of asphalt, stone, concrete and other materials. This makes a road very difficult to break through without using a pneumatic hammer.

Rock Removal

When you are digging trenches for use as ponds, swimming pools or house foundations you may come into contact with a large boulder. Most rocks you come across are easily removed but some cannot even be removed by using a backhoe. These large boulders hinder projects often. A pneumatic hammer may be called in and used to chip away at the boulder. The pneumatic hammer will break off large chunks of the boulder that will manageable.

Concrete Walls

Concrete wall removal is difficult and made more so when enforced with steel. If you could knock it over it still will be impossible to move. The solution to this problem is to use the pneumatic hammer to break it into chunks that can be removed with a bulldozer or other such heavy machinery. A pneumatic hammer was used to break away the Berlin Wall. Using a pneumatic hammer for this particular problem requires one that is portable. You will also need to be able to be elevated in order to reach what has to be removed. Smaller pneumatic hammers are used to install concrete hardware without having the user exert any strength.

Building Construction and Demolition

Tools that are traditionally used to rip down a home or aspects of it include sledgehammers, axes, pry bar and other pieces of equipment. Large pneumatic hammers can be used to break apart the foundation of the building. This is also the case for walls. A small pneumatic hammer can be used to install large nails, bolt and the like through metal beams, duct and conduit.

Pneumatic Hammer Working

A pneumatic hammer, also known as air hammer or power hammer uses compressed air to carve or chip away at stone, metal and other materials. It is a tool generally used to shape or smooth a surface area, to dig holes or cut through a surface. An air hammer, which is a replacement for the traditional hammer and chisel, is a handy tool that is very valuable for its speed which at times may lack a bit of precision in the final result. Pneumatic hammers are generally attached by a tube or hose to a large tank that pumps up air and thus making the pistons move.

 

Material Required:

  • Pneumatic cylinder
  • solenoid valve
  • air compressor
  • hammer
  • shafts
  • metallic based
  • clamps

Applications:

Automatic hammer can be used in industries where metal sheets are being prepared. It will save the time and the cost of the man power and consumer less human energy. It is widely used in industries for producing the plain metal sheets mechanism.
ADVANTAGES

Money saving

Time Saving

Efficiency increasing

More output in less time

CONCLUSION:

After all the testing we are successful in representing our idea of the project in practical way. The project on which we are working is working with very ease and efficient way.The hammer is working in a right manner by hitting the objects accurately with pressure.

Synopsis On Automatic Drain Cleaner 9888708401

  1. Complete project cost Rs 12k + transportation charges
  2. Project Report

On

Automatic Drain Cleaner

Introduction:

Cleaning of drains/gutters has always been a problem. Labors cleaning gutters & drain seems unethical and also leads to a high risk of them catching infections or poisoning due to large amounts of waste/chemicals in them. Also throwing of bottles/plastics and other such objects into the gutters lead to narrowing and eventually blockage in gutter flow. This leads to overflow in many cases. So here we provide a fully automated drain gutter cleaning mechanism to tackle these modern day gutter jamming issues. Our system uses an automated gutter/drain cleaning system that lets fluids flow through it but catches large solid waste like bottles & plastic and accumulates it. So gutter cleaners need to just clean these gutter cleaning systems installed at points instead of cleaning entire gutter floors. Our system consists of metal teeth based jaws that wait at the bottom of the mechanism. It is mounted in a frame to hold the system upright in the gutter. The vertical frame bed is used to let liquid flow but catch all solid waste. The mechanism consists of a filter basket on top of it. After particular time intervals the jaw lifts up using a motorized shaft which is connected using a chain to the jaws. It then reaches the top and turns upside down to dump the solid waste. Now after dumping the waste, the motor rotates again to bring the jaw again to the bottom position to collect more waste. The system is a very efficient way to cleaning gutters & drains and also requires very low power since it will only rotate once or twice a day to dump the solid waste

Waste water is defined as the flow of used water from homes, businesses, industries, commercial activities and institutions which are subjected to the treatment plants by a carefully designed and engineered network of pipes. There are large no.of machines used for removing out the wastes from drains.

Material Required:

  • Sprocket Gears

  • Welding Set

  • Cutters

  • grinding wheels

  • Angle 1.5 inch 3 mm 20 feet

  • Chain with special hole ¾ inch pitch

  • Sheet metal

  • Wire 3 mm 3 feet

  • Sheet 3 feet x 3 feet

  • DC Motor

  • Battery

drain cleaner9drain cleanerdrain cleaner 8

Working:

In this project we are using Dc motors to operate the project. Dc motors is being used to rotate sprocket gear which helps in moving the chain mechanism. The metal plates which are being used to clean the wastage materials are attached to the chain by using hooks. So when we give power supply to the DC

Motor through the 12 Volts battery it starts revolving. It helps in moving the sprocket gear as well as the chain mechanism. Hence with the movement of the chain our metal plates starts moving Up and Down. It starts collecting the wastage material on them and through them out to the garbage container which is attached with the metallic stand on the back side. For the blockage of the wastage material we are using a net which will block the wastage material at one pint. After that metal plates will collect the wastage material form the bottom of the structure and will through it out to the garbage cleaner.

ADVANTAGES

  1. Low cost
  2. Reliable
  3. Portable
  4. Flexible
  5. Easy to use- system is very easy to understand

Applications:

  • Used for cleaning the water in canals and rivers.

CONCLUSION:

After all the testing we are successful in representing our idea of the project in practical way. The project on which we are working, is working with very ease and efficient way. We are able to fetch out the wastage material from the water and be able to collect it in the garbage collector container.

Synopsis On Hydraulic Bridge

Synopsis 

on 

Hydraulic Bridge

INTRODUCTION

Hydraulic bridge is our major project . in this project we will move bridge using hydraulic pressure. Hydraulic actuators controlled energy to the punch. so the Operator needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. Hydraulic Punching machine helps to make hole in Various size by changing tool. As well, Hydraulic Punch provides some feedback of forces acting on the Sheet and Hole can Made in Sheet metal.

Hydraulic Hole punching machine is reduce Effort To Operator. Operator Need Very Less amount of effort.

Hydraulic hole punching machine operated by compressed Air. Hydraulic clamp have Hydraulic Cylinder, 5/2 Flow control Hand Lever valve With a punch machine holes are punched in work pieces via a Hydraulic cylinder. The cylinder is equipped with two sensors 1S1 and 1S2 which report a 1 if the back or the front of the end state is reached and is controlled via a magnetic valve. The cylinder seems simple. Moving out of position is effected via compressed air as soon as 1Y1 is activated, moving into position is effected via spring force.

The punch system is activated via two push-buttons, S1 and S2. In order to avoid accidents during the production both buttons have to be activated to run the punch machine.

A control has to be installed which ensures that both buttons are activated before the cylinder punches a hole into the work piece. In addition, safety measures have to be taken so that no manipulation is possible, for example, the push-button is glued. That means that the punch must only be operated when the two buttons are actually pressed anew.

The following tasks result from this exercise:

Creation of an assignment table with inputs and outputs

Creation of the project in Step7

Creation of symbol table in Step7

Creation of the program

Checking with PLCSIM

Solution approaches: In order to put this control into practice an Edge evaluation is necessary in any case. This is the only way that the running of the punch machine is guaranteed when the buttons are pressed (signal 0 -> 1). The output 1Y1 has to be controlled with memory units as otherwise the cylinder has to “save” its state after the two buttons have been pressed, before the front end state resets the saved state.

mechanical project ludhiana www.mechanicalproject.co.in

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Hydraulic Cylinder.

Compressor.

Solenoid control valve

Die(male, female)clamp

The main objective of our project presentation topics is to designing and developing a very compact, punch making machine. Initially the switch unit operates the compressor which delivers the air to the solenoid valve at certain pressure. The solenoid controls the flow direction of air to the Hydraulic cylinder. Thus the reciprocating motion of the Hydraulic cylinder creates high force to punch the work piece. This part consists of two parts one is fixed called upper die, at the base and other is fixed called lower die at the end of piston rod. This part is moved up and down to provide the force on the object.

Here in this project presentation topics we used for carrying the objects from one side to another side the object when it comes, if it detects the object means it will out puts a low pulse to the controller. Hydraulic is act as punching equipment. We can connect seal or cup cast with the Hydraulic for cup production. Different seals and casts are used for punching the different shapes. When control unit detects the low pulse from then that will ON the Hydraulic for Punch. After a second the controller will OFF the Hydraulic. After getting the punch from the Hydraulic spiral punch making.

ADVANTAGES

  • It reduces the manual work

  • It reduces the production time

  • Uniform application of the load gives perfect removing of the bearing.

  • Damages to the bearing due to the hammering is prevented

  • It occupies less floor space

  • Less skilled operator is sufficient

LIMITATIONS

  • Initial cost is high

  • Cylinder stroke length is constant

  • Need a separate compressor

APPLICATIONS

  • Pressing Operation in all industries

  • Paper punching industries

  • Leather washer operation in all industries

  • Punching operation also done

SYNOPSIS ON SMART DUSTBIN

SYNOPSIS

ON

SMART DUSTBIN

Introduction:

In the recent decades, Urbanization has increased tremendously. At the same phase there is an increase in waste production. Waste management has been a crucial issue to be considered. This paper is a way to achieve this good cause. In this paper, smart bin is built on a microcontroller with metal detector, dc motor and Ultrasonic sensor. Ultrasonic sensor is placed at the top of the dustbin which will measure the stature of the dustbin. The threshold stature is set as 10cm. Project will be programmed in such a way that when the dustbin is being filled, the remaining height from the threshold height will be displayed. Once the garbage reaches the threshold level ultrasonic sensor will trigger the GSM modem which will continuously alert the required authority until the garbage in the dustbin is squashed. Once the dustbin is squashed, people can reuse the dustbin. At regular intervals dustbin will be squashed. Once these smart bins are implemented on a large scale, by replacing our traditional bins present today, waste can be managed efficiently as it avoids unnecessary lumping of wastes on roadside.Foul smell from these rotten wastes that remain untreated for a long time, due to negligence of authorities and carelessness of public may lead to long term problems. Breeding of insects and mosquitoes can create nuisance around promoting unclean environment. This may even cause dreadful diseases.

Though the world is in a stage of up gradation, there is yet another problem [1] that has to be dealt with. Garbage! Pictures of garbage bins being overfull and the garbage being spilled out from the bins can be seen all around. This leads to various diseases as large number of insects and mosquitoes breed on it. A big challenge in the urban cities is solid waste management. Hence, smart dustbin is a system which can eradicate this problem or at least reduce it to the minimum level. Our present Prime Minister of India, Sri Narendra Modiji has introduced the concept of implementing 100 smart cities in India. “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” was initiated to ensure a clean environment.

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE PROJECT:

Pneumatic Cylinder

Solenoid valve

metallic dustbin

Power Supply Circuit

DC motor

Relay Circuit

Air Compressor

IR sensor

Buzzer

Metal detector circuit

Glass for compressing process

Working:

In this project, We are using 2 Pairs of Ir sensors which indicates two levels of the Dustbin. One of the level indicates that the waste material has been reached up to a certain level, after getting signal from this Ir sensor pair , the waste material is being compressed by a compressor which is attached with pneumatic cylinder. The other one is used for Indicating that the Dustbin is full waste material should be extracted Out RIGHT NOW. Ir Sensor sense the waste material and gives an output signal to the system drivers. After getting the signals from IR sensors, The attached circuitry perform their tasks of automatic compressing the waste material in dustbin and when the dustbin is full it automatically extracts the waste material out from it,

Advantages:

The invention as described in the drawing find applications in the following area:

a. Government-powered cities

b. Home

c. Offices

d. Industries, factories

e. hospitals

Synopsis on solar grass cutter

Synopsis

On

Solar Grass Cutting Machine

Introduction and Working:

Grass Cutting project is our major project. We will operate this machine using solar panel. We found tough to get idea from Internet because its tough to get combined material to make mechanical design.

There are two ways to cut grass – one radial and another is axial. Normally grass cutter machines are axial type. We will cut grass with radial method.

We will use HSS – High speed steel or CS- carbon steel for cutting grass.

We will use high torque PM -permanent magnet type motor for driving blades. Blade will be welded or we will use nut bolt assembly.

Which will help to charge battery. First of all solar panel will give AC output. So ac will be converted in to DC using bridge and filters. Out put of supply will ve given to battery charging circuit.

An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically the utility mains, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short—5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units—but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.

While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities

The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems:

Power failure: defined as a total loss of input voltage.

Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the mains voltage.

Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage.

Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion.

Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.

Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.

Harmonic distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal sinusoidal waveform expected on the line.

UPS units are divided into categories based on which of the above problems they address[dubious – discuss], and some manufacturers categorize their products in accordance with the number of power related problems they address.

In this project we will use Pic controller to controller to control the whole function.

We will use indicator for Low voltage , Current usage.

Battery Low indication.

Switching circuit for battery and power supply.

Material Required:

  • Solar Panel
  • Charging Circuit
  • Battery
  • Grass Cutter
  • Mechanical Stand
  • Dc Motor
  • Switch
  • Handle

Over view of the Project:

solar grass cutter

ADVANTAGES

  • Low cost
  • Reliable
  • Portable
  • Flexible due to microcntroller
  • Easy to use- system is very easy to understand

Features-

  • Autoswitching
  • Power mode and Battery mode indication

Synopsis On Seed Planter

  1. Synopsis

On

     Seed Planter

Abstract

The basic requirements for small scale cropping machines are, they should be suitable for small farms, simple in design and technology and versatile for use in different farm operations. A manually operated template row planter was designed and developed to improve planting efficiency and reduce drudgery involved in manual planting method. Seed planting is also possible for different size of seed at variable depth and space between two seed. Also it increased seed planting, seed/fertilizer placement accuracies and it was made of durable and cheap material affordable for the small scale peasant farmers. The operating, adjusting and maintaining principles were made simple for effective handling by unskilled operators (farmers).

Introduction:

A planter is a farm implement, usually towed behind a tractor, that sows (plants) seeds in rows throughout a field. Planters lay the seeds down in precise manner along rows. Various machines meter out seeds for sowing in rows. The ones that handle larger seeds tend to be called planters, whereas the ones that handle smaller seeds tend to be called seed drills, grain drills, and seeders.

Under intensive cropping, timeliness of operations is one of the most important factors which can only be achieved if appropriate use of agricultural machines is advocated. Manual method of seed planting, results in low seed placement, spacing efficiencies and serious back ache for the farmer which limits the size of field that can be planted. To achieve the best performance from a seed planter, the above limits are to be optimized by proper design and selection of the components required on the machine to suit the needs of crops.

Seed Planter:

In a mechanical drive system the unit works by a small suspended tire being driven by another which is in contact with the ground (driven) tire. As the operator lowers the planter the two tires make contact and the planter is engaged. When the driven wheel begins to turn it then turns a series of gears that determine the population of the seed produced. The gears can be changed by the operator in order to change the planting population.

Purpose of seed planter machine:

The basic objective of sowing operation is to put the seed and fertilizer in rows at desired depth and seed to seed spacing, cover the seeds with soil and provide proper compaction over the seed. The recommended seed to seed spacing and depth of seed placement vary from crop to crop and for different ago-climate conditions to achieve optimum yields.

Working:

When power supply is given to the Dc motor through solar panel it starts rotating at a finite speed. It also tends the shafts and the gears to rotate at that finite speed as well. The another Dc motor motor which is connected with the transport wheels is for the moving purpose of the project. The furrow opener is attached with the shafts and the seed container. It is used to make furrow far making space for the seeds to plant. As the furrow opener digs the soil for making space for  the seeds, simultaneously seeds go down through the seeds container into the lane made by the furrow opener. The furrow opener is attached with the circuitry of the shafts and gears. It works according the movement of the gears and the shafts.

Block Diagram

seed planter

Material Required:

  • DC motor

  • Solar Panel

  • Charging Circuit

  • DC Battery

  • Gears

  • Transport Wheels

  • Furrow opener

  • Seed Box

  • Driller

    Advantages of machine :

    • Following are the advantages of manual seed planter machine are

    • Improvement in planting efficiency.

    • Increase in crop yield and cropping reliability.

    • Increase in cropping frequency.

    • It increased seed planting.

    • Seed/fertilizer placement accuracies.

    • It was made of durable and cheap material affordable for the small scale peasant farmers.

    • Lesser maintenance cost. The seed can be placed at any required depth.

    • The plant germination can be improved.

    • Requirement of labor also decreased. It consume less time for sowing.

    • Seed can be placed uniformly in a row with required distance between plants.

    • Provide proper compaction over the seed.

    Conclusions

    This manual seed planter machine has considerable potential to greatly increase productivity. Other countries of the world where the two wheel tractor is the main traction unit in farming. The main task now is to promote this technology and have available to farmers at an affordable price. The manual Seed Planter machine can be readily made from local components in workshops. The only specialized items required are the seed meters plunger which can be sourced at an inexpensive price from local promoter and plunger is easily manufactured. By using of this machine, achievement of flexibility of distance and depth variation for different seed plantation is possible.

Synopsis on Foursided hacksaw motorised based

SYNOPSIS

ON

FOUR WAY HACKSAW SOLAR BASED

INTRODUCTION:

We have pleasure in introducing our new project “AUTOMATIC OPERATED FOUR WAY HACKSAW”, which is fully equipped by sensors circuit and wiper motor. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and designed for Machines. The FOUR WAY HACKSAW system is a fully automation project. This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the degree of mechanization is increased.

We are using solar panel in this project which will convert the solar energy into the electrical energy and with this technology we will charge the battery which will be used by the motor to power up the CAM hence the four way hacksaw machine will start working.

Hacksaw

A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a sheet metal body; they can cut into a sheet metal panel further than a frame would allow. These saws are no longer commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades and discs are now used for longer cuts in sheet metals. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades should be set to be facing forwards. Some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface.

Blades

Blades are available in standardized lengths, 10 or 12 inches (254 or 305 mm) for a standard hand hacksaw. “Junior” hacksaws are 6 inches (152 mm) long. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades.

TYPES OF BLADES:

1.High Carbon Steel

2.Low Alloy Steel

3.Bi-Metallic Steel

4.High Speed Steel

METHODOLOGY BEING USED

CAM TECHNOLOGY:

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam. The cam can be seen as a device that rotates from circular to reciprocating (or sometimes oscillating) motion. A common example is the camshaft of an automobile, which takes the rotary motion of the engine and translates it into the reciprocating motion necessary to operate the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinders.

Component List:

  • HACKSAW

  • MODEL FRAME

  • CAM

  • SHAFTS

  • SOLAR PANEL

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • CHARGING CIRCUIT

ADVANTEGES:

  • Weight of machine less

  • It reduce the work of labor

  • Easy to make because of simple construction

  • High production rate.

  • Cost is less

APPLICATIONS:

  • In Engineering industry

  • In Construction industry

  • In workshop

CONCLUSION:

We have learnt how the theoretical design is possible is possible in practical. Other Hacksaw machine is only cut one part at one time but this machine cut the four part at a time, this hacksaw machine has lighter weight as compared to other machine. The cost of machine is less and easy to operate so it affordable for all industry.

Future Scope:

We can try to change the speed of motor cutting the different metal at various speed if it possible. So we can make the changes as well in the project as per the requirements.

Synopsis on automatic bike stand

INTRODUCTION:

In all over world everywhere motorcycle are used. The side stand plays major roll while the vehicle is in rest position. But it has some disadvantages takes place as while the driver starting the motorcycle, there may be possibility of forget to release the side stand this will caused to unwanted troubles. This is a new type of side stand which is automatically retracting the side stand through some mechanical and electronic arrangement. In this system microcontroller, speed sensor, dc battery is used. Through the speed sensor, sensor sense the rotation of the wheel and sends the signal to the microcontroller which is actuate the dc motor which is caused the disengage the stand from the road. A motorcycle side stand is nearly universal method of allowing a motorcycle rider to park his vehicle easily. If this stand is in the park position while the motorcycle is ridden through left turn a serious hazard exists. A new type stand side stand which is automatically retracting side stand is invented to prevent such type of accidents. Side stand mounted behind bottom bracket and can be bolted on either clamping the chain stays, or welded in to place as an integral part of the frame.
The motorcycle side stand consists of steel rod held in both park and stopped position by an over centered spring. It is to provide the stand stability and a support to the motorcycle. Many side stand designs, attachments, mechanisms and rider warning system. Some side stand retracts automatically when the motorcycle is lifted off the support. Some retract if they contact the ground when the motorcycle is moving. Many different concepts have been applied for this hazard

COMPONENT OF SYSTEM
1) Battery
2) DC motor
3) Push button
4) Microcontroller
5) Side stand
6) Relay
7) Speed sensor

DRY CELL BATTERY –
A dry cell uses a paste electrolyte, with only enough moisture to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can operate in any orientation without spilling, as it contains no free liquid, making it suitable for portable equipment. By comparison, the first wet cells were typically fragile glass containers with lead rods hanging from the open top and needed careful handling to avoid spillage. Lead–acid batteries did not achieve the safety and portability of the dry cell until the development of the gel battery. A common dry cell is the zinc–carbon battery, sometimes called the dry Avalanche cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc–manganese dioxide combination). A standard dry cell comprises a zinc anode, usually in the form of a cylindrical pot, with a carbon cathode in the form of a central rod. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a depolarize. In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. D.C. MOTOR –
DC motor is designed for two speed operation. It consists of three brushes namely: common, low speed, high speed. Two of the brushes will be supplied for different made of operation. The DC motor does not oscillate back and forth, it rotates continuously in one direction like most others motors. The rotational motion is converted to the back and forth wiper motion by a series of mechanical linkage. This type of motor is called a gear head or motor end has advantage of having lots of torque. The dc motor works on 12volt D.C. battery.

POWERING THE MOTOR –
Voltage- the standard voltage requirement for the motor is 12v DC. The electrical system in a running automobile usually puts out between 13 and 13.5 volts, so it’s safe to say the motor can handle up to 13.5 volts with no problem. I wouldn’t recommend any voltages higher than that.

CURRENT –
The minimum required current for the motor is 1.6 amps 70 rpm, 0.9 amps at 41 rpm. These current ratings are for the motor spinning with no load. As you add mechanical load, these numbers can increase dramatically, doubling or even tripling under a heavy load. This factor must be taken into account when selecting a power supply. Since the motor will only use what it needs when it comes to current, it’s best to provide a source with a higher current rating than you think you might need. SWITCH BUTTON –
In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either “closed” meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or “open”, meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states (open or closed) can be either a “toggle” (flip switch for continuous “on” or “off”) or “momentary” (push-for “on” or push-for “off”) type.
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock.
An ideal switch would have no voltage drop when closed, and would have no limits on voltage or current rating. It would have zero rise time and fall time during state changes, and would change state without “bouncing” between on and off positions. Practical switches fall short of this ideal; they have resistance, limits on the current and voltage they can handle, finite switching time, etc. The ideal switch is often used in circuit analysis as it greatly simplifies the system of equations to be solved, but this can lead to a less accurate solution.

MICROCONTROLLER –
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated μC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Micro-controllers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Micro-controllers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.

SIDE STAND –
A Side stand is a device on a bicycle or motorcycle that allows the bike to be kept upright without leaning against another object or the aid of a person. A “smaller, more convenient” kickstand was developed by Joseph Paul Treen, the father of former Louisiana Governor, Dave Treen. A kickstand is usually a piece of metal that flips down from the frame and makes contact with the ground. It is generally located in the middle of the bike or towards the rear. Some touring bikes have two: one at the rear, and a second in the front.
A side stand style kickstand is a single leg that simply flips out to one side, usually the non-drive side, and the bike then leans against it. Side stands can be mounted to the chain stays right behind the bottom bracket or to a chain and seat stay near the rear hub. Side stands mounted right behind the bottom bracket can be bolted on, either clamping the chain stays or to the bracket between them, or welded into place as an integral part of the frame.

RELAY –
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contractor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching.

STEP INVOLVED FOR MAKING AUTOMATIC SIDE STAND FOR TWO WHEELER

STEP1 – CONSTRUCTION OF FRAME
Firstly we are made a general layout of side stand frame according to dimension given in present time of two wheeler. for making frame, we are used mild steel rod and with the help of manufacturing process be prepare a rectangular frame the manufacturing process include for making side stand frame are cutting, welding , grinding ,and super finishing .this figure shows the mild steel rod for making side steel frame.
STEP 2 – MAKING PLATE FOR PIVOTED SIDE STAND FROM FRAME
In this stage we are made plate on which side stands are pivoted. The dimension of this plate is given according to motorcycle specification. The plate consists of hole for bolted the side stand and a upper hook are welded to connect the one end of the spring. This plate is welded with the frame inclined to the frame axis.
STEP 3 – MAKING A TENSION SPRING
In this step we take a spring wire and with the help of lathe machine we form a tension spring. The material of the tensile spring is stainless steel. After lab test we found the stiffness of spring. 1.732 N/mm.
STEP 4 – MAKING A MECHANICAL BUSH
In this step we make we make a mechanical bush from a solid rod of stainless steel with the help of of the lathe machine. Firstly we have done turning operation for finding the desire dimension and after that we have made a hole with the help of drill bit. The main function of mechanical bush is to connect the motor shaft to the pivoted bolt of side stand.
STEP 5-FINAL ASSEMBLY
In this step all the component of side stand are assembled in proper manner. the presented mechanism consist of a D.C motor powered by motorcycle’s battery ,connected to the side stand through a worm and worm gear mechanism to gain speed reduction of motor and multiply the torque . The motor is actuated by the sensor mounted on the front wheel through the microcontroller. A presser switch is also mounted on the stand bracket to sense full disengagement of stand. When the vehicle starts moving the sensor on front wheel sends a signal to the microcontroller to actuate the motor causing them to move disengaged position. When the stand is fully disengaged it presses the pressure switch which again sends a signal the microcontroller which stops the motor.

APPLICATION
Ø This is used in all type of two wheelers such as geared, non- geared, hand gears two wheelers
ADVANTEGES
Ø Here simple mechanism operated
Ø It is simple in installation
Ø No needed for extra power source
Ø good economic cost
Ø It not require special design

CONCLUSION:
We observe that from the design and analysis D.C motor and other component like as microcontroller and speed sensor ,switch are occupies less space and this space is easily available into the mechanical frame of the motorcycle . After analysis of torque the required torque to raise the side stand is 6076 N-m. So after calculation of torque we determined the power required to raise the side stand which is 19.078 Watt. So we design automatic side stand for maximum frictional torque. Hence we used 12V DC geared motor which draws 2 amp current and 24W power. Automatic stand is presently in use and quite successful. Although it has certain disadvantages. Automatic Side Stand 182 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 1) When the rider pushes the button then the

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Synopsis on Pneumatic Punching machine

Pneumatic punch machine:

With a punch machine holes are punched in work pieces via a pneumatic cylinder. The cylinder is equipped with two sensors 1S1 and 1S2 which report a 1 if the back or the front of the end state is reached and is controled via a magnetic valve. The cylinder seems simple. Moving out of position is effected via compressed air as soon as 1Y1 is activated, moving into position is effected via spring force.
The punch system is activated via two push-buttons, S1 and S2. In order to avoid accidents during the production both buttons have to be activated to run the punch machine.
A control has to be installed which ensures that both buttons are activated before the cylinder punches a hole into the work piece. In addition, safety measures have to be taken so that no manipulation is possible, for example, the push-button is glued. That means that the punch must only be operated when the two buttons are actually pressed anew.
Solution approaches: In order to put this control into practice an Edge evaluation is necessary in any case. This is the only way that the running of the punch machine is guaranteed when the buttons are pressed (signal 0 -> 1). The output 1Y1 has to be controlled with memory units as otherwise the cylinder has to “save” its state after the two buttons have been pressed, before the front end state resets the saved state.
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this project presentation topics is punching the objects for much application, like sealing, name punching, plate designing and etc. Here we are designing a pneumatic spiral punching making machines are necessary for saving the manufacturing time in the process, pneumatic is act as a main role.Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.

Major components of the project:

Pneumatic Cylinder.
Compressor.
Solenoid control valve
Die(male, female)clamp

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The main objective of our project presentation topics is to designing and developing a very compact, punch making machine. Initially the switch unit operates the compressor which delivers the air to the solenoid valve at certain pressure. The solenoid controls the flow direction of air to the pneumatic cylinder. Thus the reciprocating motion of the pneumatic cylinder creates high force to punch the work piece. This part consists of two parts one is fixed called upper die, at the base and other is fixed called lower die at the end of piston rod. This part is moved up and down to provide the force on the object.
Here in this project presentation topics we used for carrying the objects from one side to another side the object when it comes, if it detects the object means it will out puts a low pulse to the controller. Pneumatic is act as punching equipment. We can connect seal or cup cast with the pneumatic for cup production. Different seals and casts are used for punching the different shapes. When control unit detects the low pulse from then that will ON the pneumatic for Punch. After a second the controller will OFF the pneumatic. After getting the punch from the pneumatic spiral punch making.
INDRODUCTION
Pneumatic hole punching helps to make the hole in sheet metal   by using Compressed Air.  Pneumatic  actuators  controlled energy to the punch , so the Operator needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. Pneumatic Punching machine helps to make hole in Various size by changing tool. As well, pneumatic Punch provides some feedback of forces acting on the Sheet and Hole can Made in Sheet metal.

Pneumatic Hole punching machine is reduce Effort To Operator. Operator Need Very Less amount of effort.
Pneumatic hole punching machine operated by compressed Air. Pneumatic clamp have pneumatic Cylinder, 5/2 Flow control Hand Lever valve

Depending on the job specification, there are multiple forms of body constructions available :
Tie rod cylinders: The most common cylinder constructions that can be used in many types of loads. Has been proven to be the safest form.
Flanged-type cylinders: Fixed flanges are added to the ends of cylinder, however, this form of construction is more common in hydraulic cylinder construction.
One-piece welded cylinders: Ends are welded or crimped to the tube, this form is inexpensive but makes the cylinder non-serviceable.
Threaded end cylinders: Ends are screwed onto the tube body. The reduction of material can weaken the tube and may introduce thread concentricity problems to the system

4. Tool:

Punch tooling (punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide. A die is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the perimeter of the hole and helps to localize the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. There is a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. The amount of clearance needed depends on the thickness, with thicker materials requiring more clearance, but the clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. The clearance is also dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a workpiece, producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch, or slightly smaller after the punch is removed. All ductile materials stretch to some extent during punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. In this case, the punch must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the punch side, and this process is known as stripping. The hole walls will show burnished area, rollover, and die break and must often be further processed. The slug from the hole falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it.

PRINCIPLE OF PROJECT
Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes through the work into a die. A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the process. Depending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused or discarded. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production volumes. When a specially shaped punch is used to create multiple usable parts from a sheet of material the process is known as blanking. In forging applications the work is often punched while hot, and this is called hot punching

Punch tooling (punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide. A die is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the perimeter of the hole and helps to localize the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. There is a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. The amount of clearance needed depends on the thickness, with thicker materials requiring more clearance, but the clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. The clearance is also dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a workpiece, producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch, or slightly smaller after the punch is removed. All ductile materials stretch to some extent during punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. In this case, the punch must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the punch side, and this process is known as stripping. The hole walls will show burnished area, rollover, and die break and must often be further processed. The slug from the hole falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it

This Pneumatic hole Punching machine Have Pneumatic cylinder, 5/2 solenoid valve, Tool Arrangements , bolts Nut Supporting pillar.

When The air from compressor, it will be taking a decision to move the tool down. Also it will up and down movement when the obstacle crossing time that will also press sheet with the help of pneumatic cylinder, and it will be given to the  solenoid valve and then it will move up or down depends upon the air speed. The tool  movement and Up, down can be done with the help of pneumatic cylinder.
This machine  are mostly used in Industrial use to Mass Production It can punch hole rapidly and Multi size Jobs.
It Have 10 bar maximum Pressure capacity . It can clamp 1 mm to 2mm thickness work pieces.
It  cost also less, high efficiency, work loading time is less.

ADVANTAGES
Ø It reduces the manual work
Ø It reduces the production time
Ø Uniform application of the load gives perfect removing of the bearing.
Ø Damages to the bearing due to the hammering is prevented
Ø It occupies less floor space
Ø Less skilled operator is sufficient

LIMITATIONS
Ø Initial cost is high
Ø Cylinder stroke length is constant
Ø Need a separate compressor

APPLICATIONS
Ø Pressing Operation in all industries
Ø Paper punching industries
Ø Leather washer operation in all industries
Ø Punching operation also done

SYNOPSIS ON INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM

PROJECT SYNOPSIS

ON

INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM

Submitted To: Submitted By:

Abstract:

we provide project solution kits and ready projects call us 9888708401
Accident prevention has been one of the leading areas of research today. Our paper is designed to prevent accidents due to loss of control, drunken driving, and rash driving, using circuitry aided by a microcontroller kit. In our work, braking distance and the distance of the obstacle are taken into consideration along with the speed of the vehicle. The sensor helps in finding the speed of movement of the vehicle and the ultrasonic sensor senses the distance of the object in front. These sensors provide real- time inputs to the microcontroller program. Using sensor the system will sense the speed of the vehicle and with the microcontroller, it will calculate the distance required to bring the vehicle to a complete stop for that speed. Breaking motors is incorporated to activate the brakes thereby achieving automatic breaking procedures. The system helps in conjunction with the driver judgment if the driver doesn’t sense the obstacle and applies the brake at the right time then the microcontroller initiates braking motor to apply the brakes automatically. Our future work deals with incorporating real time brake shoe wear system to provide enhanced feature for the intelligent braking system. By looking at safety in terms of avoiding accidents in the first place – and then protecting occupants when a crash is unavoidable – we can prevent more accidents, save more lives, and reduce insurance and medical costs to society. Intelligent Braking System approach represents a significant shift from the traditional approach to safety, but it is fundamental to achieving the substantial benefits.

INTRODUCTION:

The Braking System is the most critical system on your vehicle. Its maintenance and proper functioning are vital to you, your family and other motorists. You should not attempt to effectuate maintenance or repair work on brakes. Servicing or repairing the braking system requires specific tools and adequate technical training. That is exactly what Auto tech Performance offers you.

How does the Braking System work

The brake pedal, on which you apply pressure to slow down or stop your vehicle, is connected by levers and rods to the brake booster. The brake booster multiplies and transfers the leverage force produced by stepping on the brake pedal to the master cylinder. In turn, the master cylinder uses that amplified leverage to pressure the brake fluid from its reservoir through hydraulic lines toward the two front and rear brakes that are mounted on the wheels of the vehicle.

The hydraulic pressure that reaches each wheel’s brake is then used to create friction to slow down and stop the vehicle: the harder you push on the pedal, the more pressure is applied to the brakes, eventually locking the wheels – that is if your vehicle if not equipped with an Anti lock Braking System (ABS).

More precisely, in conventional braking system (without ABS), the brake fluid goes out to the wheels through proportional valves that distribute pressure according to weight distribution on each wheel.

Note that brake fluid has a slippery oily feel and no smell when new. As it ages, the fluid turns smoky brown from the water and contaminants that collect in the system.

Design:

Factors considered in designing the system are:

  • Braking distance

  • Distance of obstacle in front

CONCEPT PROPOSED:

With the proposed framework these sorts of mischances can be turned away. Utilizing a HALL sensor the framework will sense the rate of the vehicle and with the microcontroller, it will compute the braking separation: that is the separation required to convey the vehicle to a complete stop for that speed. Utilizing an Optical sensor, the framework will sense any moving or stationary hindrance in front and ceaselessly monitor its separation. At the point when the driver sees a deterrent in front and backs off there is no issue. Then again, in the event that he doesn’t have any significant bearing brakes and continue the same velocity, he goes to a point where the separation of the impediment equivalents to braking separation. This is the last risk for the driver to apply the brake and back off the vehicle. In the event that regardless he goes at the same speed, the microcontroller in the framework will actuate the brakes and evade an impact by conveying the vehicle to astop. Regularly, one would not stop at a moment that the vehicle is touching the impediment. Some separation is left before the snag. The separation is additionally accounted by the microcontroller. Assume for 50 km/hr if the braking separation is say 12.28 m, then 0.5 m is included and the braking separation is computed as 12.78m.

COMPONENT LIST:

  • ULTRASONIC SENSORS

  • MICROCONTROLLER

  • TYRES

  • WIRELESS REMOTE CIRCUIT

  • DC MOTORS

  • BRAKES

  • TSOP SENSOR

Advantages:

  • It allows the driver to maintain directional stability and control over steering during braking.

  • Safe and effective

  • Automatically changes the brake fluid pressure at each wheel to maintain optimum brake performance.

  • ABS absorbs the unwanted turbulence shock waves and modulates the pulses thus permitting the wheel to continue turning under maximum braking pressure.

  • Less time and more profit.

APPLICATIONS:

  • We can use this system as safety purpose.

  • Highly accurate system for automatic braking system.

  • Less operating force is required

  • Automated operation

CONCLUSION:

The system is working efficiently in both modes forward and reverse direction. When the sensor senses any obstacle behind and in front of the vehicle, it sends signals to the control unit which allows the vehicle to stop the running wheel. Thus we have an “intelligent braking system” which helps in understanding how to achieve low cost automation.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

SYNOPSIS ON REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

SYNOPSIS

ON

REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT:

  1. we provide PROJECTS AND PROJECTS KITS contact 9888708401
    As the basic law of Physics says ‘energy can neither be created nor be destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another’. During huge amount of energy is lost to atmosphere as heat. It will be good if we could store this energy somehow which is otherwise getting wasted out and reuse it next time we started to accelerate. Regenerative braking refers to a system in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is stored temporarily, as an accumulative energy, during deceleration, and is reused as kinetic energy during acceleration or running. Regenerative braking is a small, yet very important, step toward our eventual independence from fossil fuels. These kinds of brakes allow batteries to be used for longer periods of time without the need to be plugged into an external charger. These types of brakes also extend the driving range of fully electric vehicles. Regenerative braking is away to extend range of the electric vehicles. In many hybrid vehicles cases, this system is also applied hybrid vehicles to improve fuel economy. A normal car is only about 20% efficient, meaning some 80% of the energy it expends is wasted as heat created by friction. Regenerative braking could reclaim as much as half of that wasted energy, which equates into more motion produced by the fuel we are paying for instead of using that fuel to create heat that is being dissipated uselessly into the environment.

INTRODUCTION

Brakes are employed to stop or retard the motion of any moving body. Thus, in automobiles the brakes are having the most important function to perform. In conventional braking system the motion is retarded or stopped by absorbing kinetic energy by friction, by making the contact of the moving body with frictional rubber pad (called brake liner) which causes the absorption of kinetic energy, and this is wasted in form of heat in surroundings. Each time we brake, the momentum of vehicle is absorbed that it has gained by it and to re-accelerate the vehicle we have to start from the scratch to redevelop that momentum by using themore power from an engine .Thus, it will ultimately result in huge waste of energy.As the basic law of Physics says ‘energy can neither be created nor be destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another’. It will be good if we could store this energy somehow which is otherwise getting wasted out and reuse it next time we started to accelerate. That’s the basic concept of regenerative (“regent”)brakes, which provide braking for the system when needed by converting the available energy to some usable form. These are widely used in electric trains and the latest electric cars. Regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used immediately or stored until needed. Thus, the generated electricity during the braking is fed back into the supply system (in case of electric trains), whereas in battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored in a battery

Regenerative Braking System bank of capacitors for later use. Energy may also be stored by compressing air or in a rotating flywheel. An Energy Regeneration Brake was developed in 1967 for the AMC Amitron. This was a completely battery powered urban concept car whose batteries were recharged by regenerative braking, thus increasing the range of the automobile. Many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this technique to extend the range of the battery pack. Examples include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, the Vectrixelectric maxi-scooter, and the Chevrolet Volt.

NEED FOR REGENERATIVE BRAKES

The regenerative braking system delivers a number of significant advantages over a car that only has friction brakes. In low-speed, stop- and-go traffic where little deceleration is required; the regenerative braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force. This vastly improves fuel economy with a vehicle, and further enhances the attractiveness of vehicles using regenerative braking for city driving. At higher speeds, too, regenerative braking has been shown to contribute to improved fuel economy – by as much as 20%.Consider a heavy loaded truck having very few stops on the road. It is operated-near maximum engine efficiency. The 80% of the energy produced is utilized to overcome the rolling and aerodynamic road forces. The energy wasted in applying brake is about 2%. Also its brake specific fuel consumption is 5%.Now consider a vehicle, which is operated in the main city where traffic is a major problem here one has to apply brake frequently. For such vehicles the wastage of energy by application of brake is about 60% to 65%.

BASIC IDEA OF REGENERATIVE BRAKES

Concept of this regenerative brake is better understood from bicycle fitted with Dynamo. If our bicycle has a dynamo (a small electricity generator) on it for powering the lights, we’ll know it’s harder to peddle when the dynamo is engaged than when it’s switched off. That’s because some of our peddling energy is being”stolen” by the dynamo and turned into electrical energy in the lights. If we’re going along at speed and we suddenly stop peddling and turn on the dynamo, it’ll bring us to a stop more quickly than we would normally, for the same reason: it’s stealing our kinetic energy. Now imagine a bicycle with a dynamo that’s 100 times bigger and more powerful. In theory, it could bring our bike to a halt relatively quickly by converting our kinetic energy into electricity which we could store in battery and use again later. And that’s the basic idea behind regenerative brakes. Electric trains, cars, and other electric vehicles are powered by electric motors connected to batteries. When we’re driving along, energy flows from the batteries to the motors, turning the wheels and providing us with the kinetic energy we need to move. When we stop and hit the brakes, the whole process goes into reverse:

Regenerative Braking System electronic circuits cut the power to the motors. Now, our kinetic energy and momentum makes the wheels turn the motors, so the motors work like generator sand start producing electricity instead of consuming it. Power flows back from these motor-generators to the batteries, charging them up. So a good proportion of the energy we lose by braking is returned to the batteries and can be reused when we start off again. In practice, regenerative brakes take time to slow things down, so most vehicles that use them also have ordinary (friction) brakes working alongside (that’s also a good idea in case the regenerative brakes fail).That’s one reason why regenerative brakes don’t save 100 percent of our braking energy.

The main components of this system

  • Engine

  • Motor/Generator

  • Batteries

  • Electronic control system

BLOCK DIAGRAM

regenrative

ADVANTAGES:

1.Energy Conservation:

The flywheel absorbs energy when braking via a clutch system slowing the car down and speeding up the wheel. To accelerate, another clutch system connects the flywheel to the drive train, speeding up the car and slowing down the flywheel. Energy is therefore conserved rather than wasted as heat and light which is what normally happens in the contemporary shoe/disc system.

2. WEAR REDUCTION

An electric drive train also allows for regenerative breaking which increases Efficiency and reduces wear on the vehicle brakes. In regenerative raking, when the motor is not receiving power from the battery pack, it resists the turning of the wheels, capturing some of the energy of motion as if it were a generator and returning that energy to the battery pack. In mechanical brakes; lessening wear and extending brake life is not possible. This reduces the use of use the brake.

3. Fuel Consumption:

The fuel consumption of the conventional vehicles and regenerative braking system vehicles was evaluated over a course of various fixed urban driving schedules. The results are compared as shown in figure. Representing the significant cost saying to its owner, it has been proved the regenerative braking is very fuel-efficient.

4. Braking is not total loss:

Conventional brakes apply friction to convert a vehicle’s kinetic energy into heat. In energy terms, therefore, braking is a total loss: once heat is generated, it is very difficult to reuse. The regenerative braking system, however, slows a vehicle down in a different way

DISADVATAGES:

Regenerative Braking System comes into its own when you’re driving in the city, and spending a good deal of your time braking. You will still use more fuel in the city for each mile you drive than on the highway, though. (Thermodynamics tells us that all inefficiency comes from heat generation. For instance, when you brake, brake pedals heat up and quantity of heat, or energy, is lost to the outside world. Friction in the engine produces heat in the same way. Heat energy, also, has higher entropy than, say, electric, meaning that it is less ordered.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

SYNOPSIS on automatic Carjack

SYNOPSIS

on

automatic Carjack”

ABSTRACT

The work in this study is in general described, an electrically operated car jack. ,. The prototype includes motor powered by the dc battery. The motor with Sprocket and chain system will be the lifting mechanism. When the car needed to be lifted, give power supply to the dc motor through two way switch circuit. The common problem faced by the current available car jacks in the market is it is manually operated and needed physical effort to lift the vehicle. All the analysis and results such as the torque needed and gearing ratio is important in this project before needed to be developed. The developed automatic car jack is base on the result and analysis part to lift a Kancil car. The stress and

Von Mises stress are additional analysis on the gearing parts to know how much stress applied on the system to avoid failure. The developed automatic car jack is a success

which it able to lift a kancil’s car according to the set scopes.

INTRODUCTION:

A Carjack is a mechanical device that can increase the magnitude of an effort force. In this project we make a jack which will work automatically. In this project first of all we will make a Carjack with the help of bevel gears types some mechanism. Carjack is a very useful thing today but there are many heavy vehicle so working which a Carjack is very difficult to every person. So by keeping this concept in our mind we have made an automatic Carjack which is controlled by motor. We use a DC motor because the direction of rotation is very easily of Dc motor which is required for Carjack is very must.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Available jacks present difficulties for the elderly, women and are especially disadvantageous under adverse weather conditions. These presently available jacks further require the operator to remain in prolonged bent or squatting position to operate the jack. Doing work in a bent or squatting position for a period of time is not ergonomic to human body. It will give back problem in due of time. Moreover, the safety features are also not enough for operator to operate the present jack. Present car jack do not have a lock or extra beam to withstand the massive load of the car. This is for the safety precaution in case if the screw break. Furthermore, available jacks are typically large, heavy and also difficult to store, transport, carry or move into the proper position under an automobile. Suppose car jacks must be easy to use for pregnant women or whoever had problem with the tire in the middle of nowhere. The purpose of this project is to encounter these problems. An electric car jack which has a frame type of design by using electric from the car lighter will be developed. Operator only needs to press the button from the controller without working in a bent or squatting position for a long period of time to change the tire.

OBJECTIVES

In order to fulfill the needs of present car jack, some improvement must be made base on the problems statement:

.1. To design a car jack that is safe, reliable and able to raise and lower the height level.

2. To develop a car jack that is powered by dc power and fully automated with a button system.

COMPONENT LIST

  • DC BATTERY

  • DC MOTOR

  • FREE WHEELS

  • CHAIN

  • CAR JACK

  • METTALIC STAND

  • TWO WAY SWITCHES

Overview

motorised jack with AC motor

WORKING:

When we supply dc voltage to two way switches, the dc motor starts rotating. As the freewheels are connected to the dc motor, hence the chain starts moving according to the speed of the motor. CAR JACK is attached with the second sprocket gear with the movement of the second freewheel it operates the car jack as well.

APPLICATIONS:

1. The developed automatic car jack can only withstand below 1000kg of load

II. The developed automatic car jack must be operated on a flat surface

III. The developed automatic car jack is only a prototype and not readily functioning as commercial product.

IV. The design is based on current scissor jack in the market.

V. The developed automatic car jack is only for normal person

VI. The developed automatic car jack can only work by using the DC POWER.

CONCLUSION

If you have the space and you do your own maintenance and repair, you’re going to love having a table lift. The table lifts made by Handy, though a bit heavy and space hungry, are strong, well built, simple to use and should last a lifetime. They require only a periodic drop of oil and shot of grease as maintenance. Sure, there are some table lifts that are lighter and more compact, but when I work on my bike I want something that’s solid, sturdy and versatile. And if I can demonstrate that it can be used for other purposes, it’s easier to sell to the Mrs. If the cost is a stumbling point, you could do like I’ve done in the past and go in with some friends on the cost. Just be sure to lobby real hard to get it to reside in your garage

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Synopsis on Solar Spray Pump

Synopsis

on

Solar Spray Pump

Introduction:

Spraying of pesticides is an important task in agriculture for protecting the crops from insects. Farmers mainly use hand operated or fuel operated spray pump for this task. This conventional sprayer causes user fatigue due to excessive bulky and heavy construction. This motivated us to design and fabricate a model that is basically trolly based solar sprayer In our design, here we can eliminate the back mounting of sprayer ergonomically it is not good for farmers health point of view during spraying, in this way here we can reduce the users fatigue level. There will be elimination of engine of fuel operated spray pump by which there will be reduction in vibrations and noise. The elimination of fuel will make our spraying system Eco-friendly. So with this background, we are trying to design and construct a solar powered spray pump system. Now days there are non conventional energy sources are widely used. The energy which is available from the sun is in nature at free of cost. In India solar Energy is available around 8 months in year .so it can be used in spraying operation. Solar pesticide sprayer can give less tariff or price in effective spraying. Solar energy is absorbed by the solar panel which contains photovoltaic cells. The conversion of the solar energy into electrical energy is done by these cells. This converted energy utilizes to store the voltage in the DC battery and that battery further used for driving the spray pump.

In India there are different different types of sprayer can be used according to the grouth of different types of crops as fallow:

1)Hand operated sprayer.

2)Engine operated sprayer/fuel operated sprayer.

3)Electric motor pump sprayer.

1)Hand operated sprayer

hand operated sprayer is operated by hand so that the discomfort occur while spraying.

2)Engine operated sprayer/fuel operated sprayer

As we know that engine operated sprayer is working on petrol, petrol is costly fuel so in farmer economical point of view it is not good.

3)Electric motor pump sprayer

Electric motor pump sprayer is used electricity for charging battery in this way the pump can e drive according to battery charging, In the above sprayer there are some drawbacks such as

1)hand operated sprayer can not be use continuously spraying. We can say that it can not be use for long time.

2)engine operated sprayer can be operated on petrol so it is not possible to use every farmer.

3)here 70% of people can be live in rural areas. in rural areas there are insufficient electricity. so it is not possible to use electric motor pump for spraying.

Objective:

  • Spray pump with efficiency

  • Easy to work with spray pump

Methodology:

  • Problem Identification

  • Solution for the problem

  • Selection of components

  • Implementation

  • Design Calculation

  • Results

Components List:

  • 1. Tank

  • 2. Solar panel

  • 3. DC Motor

  • 4. DC Battery

  • 5. Nozzle type

  • 6. Connecting pipe/boom

  • 7. charge controller

  • 8.Trolly Assembly

  • 9. Mounting element

Overview

Solar water Pump 4500
Solar water Pump 4500

 

Advantages:

  • More economical

  • Easy to clean and maintain

  • It is a renewable energy source

  • It does not create air pollutant & noise

  • Easy to handle

  • Do not required fuel hence cost reduce for spraying

Future scope:

Electrical system can be added with the spray pump for rare applications.

CONCLUSION:

The solar powered agricultural pesticide sprayer has been fabricated according to the design parameters My project aim was to confront the farmer while spraying due to trolly based sprayed here we can eliminate back mounting of sprayer and it is gud for farmer health point of view Economically

Synopsis on Gear Less Power Transmission

Introduction:

Mechanical Project on Gear less Transmission

Gear-less transmission is a compact and portable equipment, which is skillful and having something in practice in the transmitting power at right angle without manufactured and can be made in less time. This project uses EL-Bow mechanism which is an ingenious link mechanism of slider and kinematic chain principle. This is also called as “gear less transmission mechanism” and is very useful for transmitting motion at right angles.

This mechanism is for transmitting motions at any fixed angle between the driving and driven shaft. The synthesis of this mechanism would reveal that it comprises of a number of pins would be between 3 to 8 the more the pins the smoother the operation.

These pins slide inside hollow cylinders thus formatting a sliding pair

Our mechanism has 3 such sliding pairs. These cylinders are placed in a hollow pipe and are fastened at 120* to each other. This whole assemble is mounted on brackets wooden table. Power is supplied by an electric motor.

WORKING:

In this project rotational motion around an axis usually involves gears, which can quickly become complicated, inflexible and clumsy look. So, instead of using gears this technology elegantly converts rotational motion using a set of cylindrical bars bents to 90 degree, in a clever, simple and smooth process that translates strong rotational force even in restricted spaces.

A gear less transmission is provided for transmitting rotational velocity from an input connected to three bent links. Both the input shaft and housing have rotational axes.

The rotational axes of the input shaft is disposed at an angle of 90 degree with respect to the rotational axes of the housing. As a result, rotation of the input shaft results in a processional motion of the axes of the bent link. The rotary and reciprocating motion of bent link transmit rotation of prime mover to 90 degree without any gear system to an output shaft without gears. The transmission includes the input shaft.

gearless power transmission
gearless power transmission

The working of the mechanism is understood by the diagram. An unused form of transmission of power on shaft located at an angle. Motion is transmitted from driving the driven shaft through the roads which are bent to confirm to the angles between the shafts. These roads are located at in the holes equally spaced around a circle and they are free to slide in & out as the shaft revolves. This type of drive is specially suitable where quite operation at high speed is essential but only recommended for high duty.

The operation of this transmission is apparent by the action of one rod. During a revolution. If we assume that driving shaft “A” is revolving as indicated by arrow the driven shaft “B” will rotate counter clock wise. As shaft “A” turns through a half revolution “C” shown in the inner and most effective driving position slides out of both shafts A & B.

The first half revolution and rod “C” then will be at the top then during the remaining half this rod “C” slide inwards until it again reaches to inner most position, in the meanwhile the other rods have of course passed through the same cycle of movements all rods are successively sliding inwards and outwards.

The right angle transmission drive can be applied also to shafts located at intermediate angle between 0 degree to 90 degree. In making this transmission, it is essential to have holes for a given rod located accurately in the same holes must be equally spaced in radial and circumferential directions, be parallel to each rod should be bent at angle at which the shafts are to be located. If the holes drilled in the ends of the shafts have “blind” or “closed” ends, there ought to be a small vent at the bottom of each rod hole for the escape of air compressed by the pumping action of rods. These holes are useful for oiling to avoid blind holes shaft may have enlarged port of shoulder.

This transmission may be provided centrally and in line with the axes of each shaft and provided with a circular groove at each rod or a cross pin to permit rotation of the shaft about the rod simply active as a retaining device for shipping and handling purpose.

At a time we are showing two applications of this mechanism.

  • As a wood cutting machine, the cutter is attached on the output shaft when motion is transmitted through mechanism to output shaft the shaft will start to rotate at adjusted speed. The speed is adjusted by means of pulley. The cutters will also start to rotate along with the shaft through slot introduces in the table for free rotation of cutter edges in table. Now the feed given to wooden rods or plywood to cut in desire shape and size

  • As an air compressor, the compressor is also introduced in the project, when the pins inside the drilled holes are reciprocates as well as revolves along the axis of cylinder it gives the compressor effect. Among the three pins when first pin goes at inner dead center it sucks the air then it start to move at outer dead center by revolving, It compresses the air against seal and cylinder head disc and does simultaneously by three pins and we can get continue discharge of air the quantity

  • Mechanical seal is defined as a device which seals by virtue of axial contact pressure between two relatively flat surfaces in a plane right angle to the axis of the shaft. The seal used in EL-BOW mechanical compressor is stationary type. It is place between cylinder and cylinder head.

Machine Design:

The general steps to be followed in the designing of the machine are as followed.

  1. Preparation of the statement of the problem indicating the purpose of the machine.

  2. Selection of mechanism to be used.

  3. Selection of the material.

  4. Determining the size of component drawing.

  5. Preparation of component drawing.

  6. Manufacturing and assembling the machine.

  7. Testing of the machine for functioning.

Manufacturing of Parts:

  • Primary shaping: Preliminary shaping of machine components.

  • Machining Process: Final shape of machine components on lathe.

  • Surface finishing: polishing, lapping, filing.

  • Joining: Arc welding

  • Special operation: Lubrication, adjustment.

Applications:

  • It can be used as an extension for a socket wrench.

  • The mechanism is used for multiple spindle drilling operation called “Gang Drilling”

  • Also used for angular drilling between 0 to 90 degree position.

  • Lubrication pump for C.N.C lathe machines.

  • Air blower for electronic and computer machine

  • The EL-BOW mechanism is used for movement of periscope in submarines, In the year 1685 for the famous London tower clock.

  • Driving for all kind of four faced tower clocks.

  • This mechanism is very useful for reaching a drive at a clumsy location

Limitation:

  • Does not work at very low starting torque.

  • Improper hole drilling could pose much problem.

  • Sudden load would cause mechanism breakdown.

  • Links are to be replaced after certain cycle time.

  • Speed ration is always content 1:1.

Future Scope:

  • Torque bearing capacity can be improved.

  • Flexible bent links can be used.

  • Has a bright future in automation and robotics.

  • Can be used in automobile industry in near future.

Conclusion:

  • The model works correctly as per the design.

  • With the help of this system, we can efficiently reduce the cost in power transmission.

  • Further advancement in this technology can be made.

MECHANICAL PROJECT LIST

Pneumatic crane / hydraulic crane

pneumatic crane

pneumatic crane is our major project

in this project we will use pneumatic cyllinder to move crane up and down

a stand will be made for it.

can pick 1000 gm to 1500gm weight