There are lots of heat exchanger avaialbale..
we will make shell type heat exchanger
there will be two inputs and two outputs
Four Cube type Tanks
4 control valves
Temeperature sensor with display
Clutch is basically a mechanism which is being used for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. Clutches are being used particularly in those devices that have two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the second drives the another device. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed, or be decoupled and spin at different speeds.
The clutch disc(center) spins with the fly wheel (left). To disengage, the lever is pulled, causing a white pressure plate to disengage the green clutch disc from turning the drive shaft, which turns within the thrust bearing ring of the lever. All the 3 rings will never connect, with any gaps.
Requirement of a clutch:
Torque transmission: The clutch should be able to transmit maximum torque of
Gradual engagement: The clutch should engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks.
Heat dissipation: The clutch should be able to dissipate large amount of heat
which is generated during the clutch operation due to friction.
Dynamic balancing: The clutch should be dynamically balanced. This is
particularly required in the case of high speed engine clutches.
Vibrating damping: The clutch should have suitable mechanism to damp
vibrations and to eliminate noise produced during the power transmission.
Size:- The clutch should be as small as possible in size so that it will occupy
Free pedal play: The clutch should have free pedal play in order to reduce
effective clamping load on the carbon thrust bearing and wear on it.
Easy in operation: The clutch should be easy to operate requiring as little
exertion as possible on the part of the driver.
Lightness: The driven member of the clutch should be made as light as possible
so that it will not continue to rotate for any length of time after the clutch has
Types of clutches:
Different types of clutches are as follows:
1. Friction clutch:
(a) Single plate clutch
(b) Multi plate clutches:
(c) Cone clutch:
2. Centrifugal clutch.
3. Semi-centrifugal clutch
4. Diaphragm clutch:
(a) Tapered finger type
(b) Crown spring type
5. Positive clutch:
(a) Dog and Spline clutch
6. Hydraulic clutch
7. Electromagnetic clutch
8. Vacuum clutch
9. Over running clutch or free-wheel unit
Main Parts of the clutch:
The main parts of the clutch is divided into three parts :
It consist of a fly wheel mounted on the engine crankshaft.
Flywheel couple with clutch
The driven members are consist of the disc or plate, called the clutch plate.
Pressure plate and clutch plate
Operating members are consist of a foot pedal, linkage, release or throw out bearing, release levers and springs.
Pedal, Bearing and spring
Electromagnetic clutches operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. That is why they are called electromechanical clutches. They are most suitable for remote operation since no mechanical linkages are required to control their engagement, providing fast and smoothing operation.
However, because the activation energy dissipates as heat in the electromagnetic actuator when the clutch is engaged, there is a risk of overheating. Consequently, the maximum operating temperature of the clutch is limited by the temperature rating of the insulation of the electromagnet.
In this type of clutch, the flywheel consists of winding from the battery or dynamo.
When the current passes through the winding. it produced an electromagnetic field which attracts the pressure plate.
Thereby engaging the clutch.
When the supply is cut-off the clutch is disengaged.
The gear lever consists of a clutch release switch.
When the driver holds the gear lever to change the gear, the switch is operated
cutting off the current to the winding which causes the clutch disengaged.
At low speed when the dynamo output is low, the clutch is not firmly engaged.
Therefore, three springs are also provided on the pressure plate which helps the
clutch engaged firmly at low speed also.
A horseshoe magnet has a north and south pole. If a piece of carbon steel contacts both poles, a magnetic circuit is created. In an electromagnetic clutch, the north and the south pole is create by a coil shell and a wound coil. In a clutch when power is applied, a magnetic field is created in the coil. This field overcomes an air gap between the clutch rotor and the armature. This magnetic attraction, pulls the armature on contact with the rotor face. The frictional contact, which is being control by the strength of the magnetic field, is what causes the rotational motion to start.
The torque comes from the magnetic attraction of the coil and the fiction between the steel of the armature and the steel of the clutch rotor. For many industrial clutches, friction material is used between the poles. The material is mainly used to help to decrease the wear rate, but different types of material can also be used to change the coefficient of friction. For example, if the clutch is required to have an extended time to speed or slip time, a low co efficient of friction material can be used and if a clutch is required to have a slightly higher torque, a high coefficient friction material can be used.
In a clutch, the electromagnetic lines of flux have to pass into the rotor, and in turn, attract and pull the armature in contact with it to complete clutch engagement. Most industrial clutches use what is called a single flux, two pole design. Mobile clutches of other specially electromagnetic clutches can use a double or triple flux motor. The double or triple flux refer to the number of north- south flux paths, in the rotor and the armature.
Basic structure of Electromagnetic Clutch
This means that, if the armature is designed properly and has similar banana slots, what occurs is the leaping of the flux path. Which goes north south, south north. By having more points of contact, the torque can be greatly increased. In theory if there were two sets of poles at the same diameter, the torque would double in the clutch. Obviously, that is not possible to do, so the points of contact have to be at a smaller inner diameter. Also there are magnetic flux losses because of the bridges between the banana slot. But by using a double flux design, a 30- 50%increase in torque can be achieved, and by using a triple flux design, a 40-90% torque can be achieved. This is important in applications where size and weight are critical, such as automotive requirements.
The coil shell is made with the carbon steel that has a combination of good strength and good magnetic properties. Copper magnet wire, is used to create the coil, which is held in shell either by a bobbin or by some type of epoxy.
To increase life in applications, friction material is used between the poles on the face of the rotor. This friction material is flush with the steel on the rotor, since if the friction material was not flush, good magnetic traction could not occur between the faces. Some people look at electromagnetic clutches and mistakenly assume that, since the friction material is flush with the steel that the clutch has already worn down but this is not the case. Clutches used In most mobile applications do not use the friction material. Their cycle requirements tend to be lower than industrial clutches and their cost is more sensitive. Also many mobile clutches are exposed to outside elements, so by not having friction material, it eliminates the possibility of swelling, that can happen when friction material absorbs moisture.
Need of using Electromagnetic Clutch:
Function of clutch is to engage or disengage the engine from the transmission system. Hence it is inserted between the flywheel as well as gear box. It is consists of main important parts like clutch plate, pressure plate, friction disc, operating lever etc. In clutch engage as well as disengage are very important, because due to which clutch is used. But when clutch is applied at that time, some clearance is there in the clutch pedal called clutch pedal play and due to which, proper disengage of clutch is not achieve and clutch will slip or dragged.
There is a need to use some system incorporated in clutch system, to prevent above situation. Hence, if we shift gear and at that time clutch will disengage hence, it is very simple for driver and force require to engage as well as disengage the clutch is also neglected, hence a new type of clutch used in automobile vehicles called “Renault Car” called electromagnetic clutch.
In this clutch system, when gear shift lever is applied at that time, due to MMF clutch will disengage and when release lever, clutch will engage.
Basic operation of electromagnetic clutch:
The clutch has four main parts:
When we apply the voltage, the stationary magnetic field generates the lines of flux that pass into the door. The flux pulls the armature in contact with the rotor, as the armature and the output start to accelerate. Slipping between the rotor face and the armature face continues until the input and the output speed is the same. The actual time for this is quite short, between 1/200th of a second and 1 second.
Disengagement is very simple. Once the field starts to degrade, flux falls rapidly and the armature separates. One or more springs hold the armature away from the rotor at a predetermined air gap.
Voltage/current and the magnetic field.
If a piece of copper wire was wound, around the nail and then connected to a battery, it would create an electromagnet. The magnetic field that is generated in the wire, from the current, is known as the “right hand thumb rule”. (FIGURE-21) The strength of the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of wire (turns). EM clutches are similar; they use a copper wire coil (sometimes aluminum) to create a magnetic field.
The fields of EM clutch can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage, and the torque produced by the clutch or brake will be the same, as long as the correct operating voltage and current is used with the correct clutch. If a 90 V clutch, a 48 V clutch and a 24 V clutch, all being powered with their respective voltages and current, all would produce the same amount of torque. However, if a 90 V clutch had 48 V applied to it, this would get about half of the correct torque output of that clutch. This is because voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic clutches.
A constant power supply is ideal if accurate or maximum torque is required from a clutch. If a non regulated power supply is used, the magnetic flux will degrade, as the resistance of the coil goes up. Basically, the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque will be, by about an average of 8% for every 20°C. If the temperature is fairly constant, but there may not be enough service factor in your design for minor temperature fluctuation. Over-sizing, the clutch would compensate for minor flux. This will allow the use a rectified power supply which is far less expensive than a constant current supply.
Based on V = I × R, as resistance increases available current falls. An increase in resistance, often results from rising temperature as the coil heats up, according to: Rf = Ri × [1 + αCu × (Tf – Ti)] Where Rf = final resistance, Ri = initial resistance, αCu = copper wire’s temperature coefficient of resistance, 0.0039 °C-1, Tf = final temperature, and Ti = initial temperature.
There are actually two engagement times to consider in an electromagnetic clutch. The first one is the time that it takes for a coil to develop a magnetic field, strong enough to pull in an armature. Within this, there are two factors to consider. The first one is the amount of ampere turns in a coil, which will determine the strength of a magnetic field. The second one is air gap, which is the space between the armature and the rotor. Magnetic lines of flux diminish quickly in the air.. Air gap is an important consideration especially with a fixed armature design because as the unit wears over many cycles of engagement the armature and the rotor will create a larger air gap which will change the engagement time of the clutch. In high cycle applications, where registration is important, even the difference of 10 to 15 milliseconds can make a difference, in registration of a machine. Even in a normal cycle application, this is important because a new machine that has accurate timing can eventually see a “drift” in its accuracy as the machine gets older.
The second factor in figuring out response time of a clutch is actually much more important than the magnet wire or the air gap. It involves calculating the amount of inertia that the clutch needs to accelerate. This is referred to as “time to speed”. In reality, this is what the end-user is most concerned with. Once it is known how much inertia is present for the clutch to start then the torque can be calculated and the appropriate size of clutch can be chosen.
Most CAD systems can automatically calculate component inertia, but the key to sizing a clutch is calculating how much inertial is reflected back to the clutch or brake. To do this, engineers use the formula: T = (wk2 × ΔN) / (308 × t) Where T = required torque in lb-ft, WK2 = total inertia in lb-ft2, ΔN = change in the rotational speed in rpm, and t = time during which the acceleration or deceleration must take place.
There are also online sites that can help confirm how much torque is required to accelerate a given amount of inertia over a specific time.
Elements of the Electromagnetic clutch:
Electromagnetic clutches share basic structural components: A coil in a shell, also refereed to as a field: a hub: and an armature. A clutch also has a rotor, which connects to the moving part of the machine, such as drive shaft.
The coil shell is usually carbon steel, which combines strength with magnetic properties.
Copper wire forms the coil, although sometimes aluminum is used. A bobbin or epoxy adhesive holds the coil in the shell.
Activating the unit’s electric circuit energizes the coil. The current running through the coil generates a magnetic field. When magnetic flux overcomes the air gap between the armature and field, magnetic attraction pulls the armature – which connects to the hub -into contact with the rotor.
Magnetic and friction forces accelerate the armature and hub to match rotor speed. The rotor and the armature slip past each other for the first 0.02 to 1.0 seconds until the input and the output speeds are the same. The matching of the speed is sometimes called 100% lockup.
Major Parts of the project:
1. Driving motor
2. Pressure plate
3. Clutch plate
5. Steel shaft
8. Gang box
9. Dc battery
10. Gen stopper
Dc motor is being used in this project as Driving motor to rotate the engine shaft.
We connect the dc motors between the clutch plates and the engine shaft.
It is rotated with 20,000 RPM.
Practically it is rotating in this project at
Clutch plate and Pressure plate:
Clutch plate is connected with one end of motor shaft in place of the engine shaft.
Clutch plate is rotated at as same as the motor speed.
The friction material is attached to the outer periphery of the clutch plate
Pressure plate is connected with one end of driven shaft.
There is a clearance between clutch plate and pressure plate while clutch is disengaged.
The pressure plate rotated at the same speed as the clutch plate when clutch is fully engaged.
The RPM of the pressure plate varies according to the engaging condition.
Switch for motor and clutch
Electromagnet for clutch
Working of Electromagnetic clutch:
The main components of EM clutch are a coil shell, an armature, rotor, and hub. The armature plate is lined with friction coating. The coil is placed behind the rotor. When the clutch activated the electric circuit energizes the coil, it generates a magnetic field. The rotor portion of clutch gets magnetized. When the magnetic field exceeds the air gap between rotor and armature and then it pulls the armature toward the rotor. The frictional force generated at the contact surface transfer the torque. Engagement time depends on the strength of magnetic fields, inertia, and air gap. When voltage is removed from the coil, the contact is gone. In most design a spring is used to hold back the armature to provide an air gap when current is removed.
Application of electromagnetic clutch:
They can be used for remote application because they do not require linkage to actuate the clutch. They are used in printing machinery, conveyor drives, copier machines and factory automation. In an automobile, it replaces clutch pedal by a simple switch button. A smaller EM clutch is used to drive the compressor of air conditioning system.
The complicated linkage is not required to control clutch.
Automatic vice controlled mechanism- in this project we will make metal stand a vice will be fitted on frame and a motor will be connected when any object placed in between then our system will automatically detect pulse and will control the vice move ment. it will be sensor based. a switch operated can be made on demand.
wheel chair cum hydraulic bed- In this project we will use pipe for the frame we will make a chair with wheel . when we want to convert it to bed stretcher we can do. legs stand will be moved up and back rest will be moved down , it will become bed. when we want to make it chair only two to four steps required to covert. it can be used for emergency patient in hospitals.
Motorised Tower crane- Motorised tower crane is another project which will be maximum motor based a angle or pipe frame will be made and that frame will move with the help of motors we can use pneumatic or hydraulic system.
Pneumatic Cycle- pneumatic cycle will be cyllinder based movement of pedal and wheel will move according to it
wire straightening machine- Wire straightening machine
lathe machine – in this project we will make a o small model of lathe machine. we will try to make small functions. all functions will not be included it depends on the budget of student.
Four way hacksaw- in this project we will control four hacksaw at a time . a motor will control it.
Nut shooting machine- its come in jig and fixtures for segregation of nu and bolts. a motoised frame will be there and correct nut will move in same holes.
rotational molding machine –
Multispindle drill machine- in this project a single motor will be used for number of drill chucks to control . we will use AC motor .
Solar Bucket conveyor system
Hybrid vehicle using solar and electrical power
Electrical discharge machine for metal cutting
Pedal operated Hacksaw
Pedal operates washing machine Single roatation
Pedal Operated wahing machine with dual side rotation
Pedal operated electricity generation
Pneumatic /Hydrallic Zig Zag bridge
Footstep opearted electricity generation
Peltier based refrigeration System
Electricity from Speed Beaker
Robotic arm mechanical
Vehicle Auto braking System- In this system a sensor will be used in front of vehicle when our system will detect vehicle or object in front of our vehicle then automatically brakes will be applied.
Single tyre frame of Bycycle Autobraking system
Four wheel Auto braking Sytem
Autobraking Sytem using Proximity switch
Autobraking system using IR sensors
Autobraking Syteme using Ultrasonic modules
Pneumatic Mechanism in Car washing service station
Regenerative Braking System- there are lots of ways to make regenerative braking system. a frame will be made of rectangular pipes. a wheel 12 inch will be fixed on frame. when brakes applied then dynamo will touch with wheel and brakes will be applied and electroity will be generate.. another way to make project is with freewheel to reuse energy when applied brakes.
Energy producing with Speed Breaker
Energy producing with Dancing Floor- a floor will be made which will be fiber based. it will be fitted on shocker system and when shockers move with weight of person dancing then our system will generate electricity.
Auto Braking System -In this system a sensor will be used in front of vehicle when our system will detect vehicle or object in front of our vehicle then automatically brakes will be applied.
Energy producing from a busy road
Solar Seeker- in solar seeker project we will make a solar panel fitted on motorised frame. sensor will help to set position of panle according to sun position.
Carefully walking Robot
snow bike – bike can move on road and snow
RF Controlled Robotic Vehicle With Metal Detection Project
Obstacle Avoider Robotic Vehicle
RF Controlled Robotic Vehicle
Advanced Footstep Power Generation System
Coin Based Water Dispenser System
Rf Controlled Spy Robot With Night Vision Camera
Hovercraft Controlled By Android
Fully Automated Solar Grass Cutter Robot- Project is based on solar system and rotational blade movement. bladed will be fixed on motor for grass cutting . slar panel will charge battery required for motor rotation. it will be 2 x 2 feet trolley.
Remote Controlled Pick & Place Robotic Vehicle
MC Based Line Follower Robot
Agricultural Robot Project- this is 2 feet x 2 feet vehicle equipped with agriculture tools. it can be used for multipurpose task.
Fire Fighter Robot Project
Remote Controlled Robotic Arm Using Rf
Android Controlled Robotic Arm
Hand Motion Controlled Robotic Arm- Its a gesture based wireless vehicle movement. in this project vehicle will move with the command of gesture sensor.
Hand Motion Controlled Robotic Vehicle
Long Range Spy Robot With Obstacle Detection
Long Range Spy Robot With Metal Detection
Remote Controlled Automobile Using Rf
Pedal Operated Hacksaw- in padel operated hacksaw we will make a project
Pedal Powered Electricity Generator Project in this project we will generate electricity with pedal system we will roate dynamo and Electricity will be generate which we can store in battery.
Plant Irrigation Water Sprinkler Robot
Mini Conveyor Belt Mechanism- in this project we will make model for conveyor belt mechanism. a roller will be used in the end and a motor will be used to roatate conveyor. additionally we can make bottling plant, object selection and rejection etc.
Dual Motor Electric Go-Kart For Rough Terrain
Automated Coconut Scraping Machine – in this project
Automated Double Hacksaw Project- Double hacksaw is same as four way hacksaw. we will use hacksaw at a time with a single AC or DC motor. two jobs can be done simultaneously.
Pedal Powered Water Purifier Project
Automatic Blackboard / Whiteboard Cleaner System- It will work on rack and pinion logic. a white board will be used around 1.5 x 2 feet . a metal frame will be made and board will be fitted in it. we will move a row of dustor using and rack and pinion to clean the board. a switch will be used to start process.
Automated Drain/Gutter Cleaner Project- in this project a inclined conveyor based on chain will be made using a DC or AC motor. our system will automatically pick waste product like bottles polythene from water and will insert in dustbin.
Automatic Motor Bike Stand Slider- in this project we will use sprocket gears for chain movement. when person will start bike and start moving , then chain will move and chain will rotate gear and gear will rotate stand. in this way
Contactless Eddy Braking System
Design & Fabrication of Motorized Scissor Jack
Electromagnetic Braking System
Gearless Transmission Using Elbow Mechanism
Pulley Based Movable Crane Robot
Push Based Box Transport Mechanism
Sand Filter & Separator Project
Electromagnetic Braking System
Gearless Transmission Using Elbow Mechanism
Rough Terrain Beetle Robot
Smart Solar Grass Cutter With Lawn Coverage
Single Stage Gear Reducer Project
Torque Generator Mechanism
High Performance Hovercraft With Power Turning
2 Wheel Drive Forklift For Industry Warehouses
Motorized 2 Wheel Scooter Project
Fire Fighter Robot With Night Vision Camera
Long Range Spy Robot With Night Vision
2 Wheel Drive Forklift For Industry Warehouses
Design & Fabrication of Attachable Wheelchair Automator
Automated Portable Hammering Machine
Automatic Seed Sowing Robot
Faulty Product Detection And Separation System
3 DOF Hydraulic Extractor Mini JCB
Steering Mechanism Vehicle With Joystick Control
Bedini Wheel Using Electromagnetic Flux Generation
Automatic Mechanical Garage Door Opener
Automatic Paper Cutting Machine Using Geneva Mechanism
Design & Fabrication of Automated Punching Machine
Mini Conveyor using Geneva Mechanism
Mini Hacksaw Powered By Beam Engine
Design & Fabrication Of Mechanical Footstep Power Generator
Motorized Chain Mechanism Hacksaw
Remote Controlled Mini Forklift
Regenerative Braking System Project
Mini Windmill Power Generation Project
Staircase Climbing Trolley
Manual Roller Bending Machine
Bench Tapping Machine
E Skateboard With Motion Sensing
Motorized Smart Turning Mechanism
Pneumatic Powered Wall Climbing Robot
Coin Based Cola & Soda Vending Machine
Power Generation Using Electromagnetic Suspension
Motorized Scotch Yoke Mechanism Piston
Fabrication Of Ayurvedic Engriends Stirring Machine
Fabrication Of Multiple Machining Using Cranching (DRILLING & Cutting)
Design And Fabrication Of Electromagnetic Engine
Fabrication Of Automatic Sewage Cleaner
Fabrication Of Real Time Ragi Ball Making Machine
Fabrication Ofautomatic Foot Cleaner
Design And Fabrication Of Gearless Power Transmission
Fabrication Of Tmt Bar Bending Machine ( Pneumatic)
Fabrication Of Ragi Ball Making Machine
Fabrication Of Automatic 2 And 3 Point Drill Machine
Fabrication Of Digital Counting Machine Implementing Conveyors Using Metal Detection Sensor
Fabrication Of Board Cleaner Mechanism Using Rack And Pinion
Fabrication Of Automatic Hand Wash And Soap Solution
Fabrication Of Portable Vegetable Cutter And Slicer
Fabrication Of Rotating Fork Lift
Fabrication Of Line Following Robot With Fork Lift
Fabrication Of Glass Cleaning Mechanism
Fabrication Of Groundnut Thruster
Fabrication Of Fully Automatic Chappati Making Machine
Fabrication Of Remote Operated Drill Machine (HYBRID) – Solar And Wind
Fabrication Of Safest Saw Mill – Life Saver For Industrial Applications (SOLAR Operated)
Fabrication Of Voice Operated Elevator With Emergency Indicator
Fabrication Of Automatic Conveyor Belt With Pick And Place And Digital Counter
Fabrication Of Multi – Purpose Or 3 In 1 Mechanical Machine (DRILLING, Shaping & Hacksaw)
Fabrication Of Pick And Place Robot With Gripper For Industrial Applications
Fabrication Of Line Following Robot With Fork Lift
Fbrication Of Conveyor Belt With Automatic Pick And Place And Digital Counter
Fabrication Of Cement Plastering Machine
Fabrication Of Milling Machine
Fabrication Of Rotating Fork Lift
Fabrication Of Scrape Collecting And Dust Cleaming Machine – Remote Controlled
Fabrication Of Magtnetic Material Collecting Trolly By Using Electromagnetic
Fabrication Of Automatic Pvc Pipe Cutting Machine
Fabrication Of Fabrication Of Automated Conveyer For Quality Control
Fabrication Of Automatic 2 ,3 Point Drill Machine
Fabrication Of Bottle Filling System
Fbrication Of Automatic Drilling And Tapping Machine
Fabrication Of Automatic Object Counting Machine
Fabrication Of Belt Conveyor
Fabrication Of Waste Saperation Using Smart Dustbin
Fabrication And Development Of Wheelchair Cum Stretcher
Fabrication Of Remote Operated Board Cleaning Mechanical
Fabrication Of Remote Controlled Patients Bed Seat Adjustments
Fabrication Of Pendulum Based Water Pump
Fabrication Of Dry And Wet Waste Seggregator
Fabrication And Development Of Data Acquisition Robot For Toxic Enviromental Monitoring Using Wsn – Kroto Finder
Fabrication Of Pick And Place Using Moving Vehicle Through Remote
Fabrication Of Smart Windows
Fabrication Of Design And Development Of Pc Controlled Small Unit Unmanned Vehicle For Today’s Army
Fabrication Of Voice Enabled Wheel Chair
Fabrication Of Wall Painting Robot
Fabrication Of Haptic Robotic Arm (WIRELESS)
Fabrication Of Intelligent Combat Robot
Fabrication Of Lower Limb Powered Exoskeleton For Paraplegic People Assisting In Their Walking Augmentation Using Flex Sensor And Accelerometer
Fabrication Of Motorized Wheel Chair
Fabrication Of Wsn Based Advanced Irrigation Vehicle – Agribot
Fabrication Of Advanced 5 In 1 Multi Purpose Agricultural Robotic Vehicle – Agribot
Fabrication Of Rescuer Device For Lifting Infants Struck In Pits
5fabrication Of Unmanned Railway Gate Controller
Fabrication Of Haptic Robotic Arm (WIRELESS) And Camera
Fabrication of Hybrid Water Pumping System Using Pedal
Fabrication of Peddling Washing Machine
Fabrication of Battery Opreated Peddling Bycycle
Fabrication And Development Of Robot That Approaches Pedestrians
Fabrication Of Automatic Firing Based On Micro Controller
Fabrication Of Automatic Page Turner
Fabrication Of Automatic Window Or Glass Cleaning Robot
Fabrication Of Whiteboard Cleaning Mechanism
Fabrication Of Automatic Foot Dust Cleaning Machine
Fabrication Of Flex Sensor Operated Robotic Arm
Fabrication of Hybrid Multi Purpose Peddling Mechine
Fabrication of pedal Operated Time Hacksaw Machine
Fabrication of Pedal Powered Floour Mill
Compressed Air Engine
Hydraullic Punching Machine
Multiactuator hydraullic system
Solar Grass cutter with trolley
Trolley based dishwash washing system
bootling Plant automation
Industrial automation using robotics complete model
Moving trolley based spray pump
hydraulic Lift Object segregation and rejection
Auto Gear control
IC based engine
Remote operated patient bed
Hydraulic Robotic ARM
Pneumatic control of jack Conveyor belt
Automatic remote Jack
Room cooler using special cotton.
Road Energy utilization
regenerative braking system
Auto braking system
Automatic Guided vehicle fire fighting robot
walking Robo Robotic ARM
PLC based Industrial Automation
PLC based Bottling Plant
PLC based Crane System
PLC Machine Control or Drill Control
Multi functional Machine
Auto Gear control
IC based engine
Remote operated patient bed
Padle operated washing machine
Solar Car Big
Solar water Srayer
Pneumatic door control +password system pneumatic
railway crossing system
Pneumatic machine control Pneumatic
Automatic Gas Supply Cut Off On Leakage In Vehicle (WITHOUT Cylinder)
Hydraulic Punching Machine (WOOD Based Using Injections)
Electricity Generation Using Roller Method (USING Plastic Roller)
Rain Activated Wiper (WOOD Based)
Speed Breaker With 0% Output (WOOD Base Using Free Wheel)
Hydro Power Plant (WOOD Based Small Storage Tank)
Hydraulic Flyover Bridge With Lever
Hydraulic Robotic Arm (USING Iron Arm With Injection)
Hydraulic Robotic Cran (USING Iron Arm With Injection)
Regenerative Breaking System
Speed Breaker With % Output (WOOD Base Using Free Wheel)
Hydraulic Magnetic Robotic Arm (USING Iron Arm With Injection)
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Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight to electricity. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photo voltaic (PV), or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP), which normally focuses the sun’s energy to boil water which is then used to provide power, and technologies such as the Sterling engine dishes which use a Sterling cycle engine to power a generator. Photo voltaic were initially used to power small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array. Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge. One study showed that drilling accounts for nearly 90% of all chips produced.
The present situation in our country all the types of drill machine is working on AC main To reduce the power consumption from the electricity board , we need to have some kind of power source system to operate the cutting machine .We are trying to implement a prototype model of an drill machine system within the limited available source and economy .The system can be subjected to further development using advanced techniques. Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight to electricity. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photo voltaic (PV), or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP), which normally focuses the sun’s energy to boil water which is then used to provide power, and technologies such as the Sterling engine dishes which use a Sterling cycle engine to power a generator. Photo voltaic were initially used to power small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge. One study showed that drilling accounts for nearly 90% of all chips produced.
1. Drill upto 9mm
2 .No need of main it will work on solar powered battery
3. Economically cheap
4 .No montly payment for eletricity
5. It will start when drilling plate is placed at drilling place other wise it will not
6. base plate can be adjustable vertical as well as horizontal movement by motor
The present technology commonly used for trimming the grass is by using the manually handle device. In this project we have automated the machine for trimming the grass. The device consists of linear blade which is operated with the help of the motor the power supply for the motor is by using battery. The battery can be charge by using power supply and solar panel. In case of any obstacles in the path it is sensed by using an IR sensor. If there is any variation then the device using free direction sensor and find the new path to travel. The above feature is enabled so that the damage to the hardware of the device is avoided. In future the automation of the device will play a vital role in world wide. This article presents a review of researches done on the subject of automated tractor. An autonomous tractor is a vehicle that can operate without or with minimal human control, selfpropelled and guided automatically along a desired path. The benefits from such a system are useful for agriculture industry by reducing labor cost and time, as well as improving output efficiency by eliminating human errors. Many researches and inventions have been made, with the results ranging from successful, encouraging to some that are impractical for commercial implementation for certain reasons. These implements include sensor, global navigation satellite system, machine vision, laser triangulation, ultrasonic transmitter and geomagnetic controller, as well as actuator and servo motor.
Now a days there are lots of development work has peen pending but there are still some labor power which requires lots of income distribution for a small work. So this is required that some work should have some other alternative so that the labor power wastage can be avoided. So in our project we are trying to make a daily purpose robot which is able to cut the grasses in lawn. The project work will be done according to the proper application based fabrication. The system will have some automation work for guidance and other obstacle detection. The system will have a power source that is battery and a solar panel will be attached on the top of the robot. Moving the grass cutters with a standard motor powered grass cutters is an inconvenience, and no one takes pleasure in it. Cutting grass cannot be easily accomplished by elderly, younger, grass cutter moving with engine create noise pollution due to the loud engine, and local air pollution due to the combustion in the engine. Also, a motor powered engine requires periodic maintenance such as changing the engine oil. Even though electric solar grass are environmentally friendly, they too can be an inconvenience. Along with motor powered grass cutter, ele ctric grass cutters are also hazardous and cannot be easily used by all. Also, if the electric grass cutter is corded, mowing could prove to be problematic and dangerous. The prototype will also be will be charged from sun by using solar panels.
This is the new innovative and effective concept mainly used for wood cutting field. It is simple in construction and the working process is very easy. And it is mostly used in the timber field for the cutting of wood, trees, wooden pieces and etc.., The project aims at designing a system which makes the Wood cutter based motor running through solar energy.
Power plays a great role wherever man lives and works. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with the increase in the use of power. The electricity requirement of the world is increasing at an alarming rate due to industrial growth, increased and extensive use of electrical gadgets. According to world energy report, we get around 80% of our energy from conventional fossil fuels like oil (36%), natural gas (21%) and coal (23%). It is well known that the time is not so far when all these sources will be completely exhausted. So, alternative sources should be used to avoid energy crisis in the nearby future. The best alternative source is solar energy. A solar panel is a large flat rectangle, typically somewhere between the size of a radiator and the size of a door, made up of many individual solar energy collectors called solar cells covered with a protective sheet of glass. The cells, each of which is about the size of an adult’s palm, are usually octagonal and colored bluish black. Just like the cells in a battery, the cells in a solar panel are designed to generate electricity; but where a battery’s cells make electricity from chemicals, a solar panel’s cells generate power by capturing sunlight instead. They are sometimes called photovoltaic cells because they use sunlight (“photo” comes from the Greek word for light) to make electricity (the word “voltaic” is a reference to electricity pioneer Alessandro Volta). The system depending on the charging circuit the motor can be controlled. The solar power stores the energy to a battery and then runs the motor.
Solar SPrayer is the pumping facility driven by solar energy, Solar sprayer is called solar pumping system combining with solar arrays designed according to different head and daily water flow for application. System is widely utilized for agriculture irrigation, Sprayer for pesticides, daily water supply, etc. In recent years, the solar sprayers are usually used for spraying pesticides to crops and plants. Solar sprayer driven by infinite solar energy, works from sunrise, and stops at sunset, need no connection to grid power nor diesel oil and battery. System can irrigate directly or store water instead of electricity in a reservoir. Solar sprayers works with sprinkling irrigation, drip irrigation and infiltrating irrigation facilities, can be more efficient for water saving and dramatically lower the cost of using fossil energy. Solar sprayer is a pumping device powered by solar energy, consists of a solar pumping inverter and a deeo well pump, mainly used for agriculture irrigation, desert control, pasture animal husbandry, city waterscape, seawater desalination, living water supply and so on. Use solar energy, need no connection to grid. Automatically operation, maintenance free. Easy to install and move, high universality. Clean and green, high economic benefits.
Water pumping –Solar PV water pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water in India. The majority of the pumps are fitted with a 200 watt – 3,000 watt motor are powered with 1,800 Wp PV array which can deliver about 140,000 liters of water/day from a total head of 10 meters.
Oil and gas –In order to combat negative publicity related to the environmental impacts of fossil fuels, including fracking, the industry is embracing solar powered pumping systems. Many oil and gas wells require the accurate injection (metering) of various chemicals under pressure to sustain their operation and to improve extraction rates. Historically, these chemical injection pumps (CIP) have been driven by gas reciprocating motors utilizing the pressure of the well’s gas and exhausting the raw gas into the atmosphere. Solar powered electrical pumps (solar CIP) can reduce these greenhouse gas emissions.
Scarcity of electricity coupled with the increasing unreliability of monsoon rains and prevalent costly diesel pumping systems pose an economic risk to small and marginal farmers. A complex set of factors including global warming, competitive land use and lack of basic infrastructure is creating new challenges for India’s vast agrarian population. The ever increasing mismatch between demand and supply of energy, and electricity in particular, is posing challenges especially to farmers in remote areas. This coupled with the increasing unreliability of monsoon rains is forcing farmers to look at alternate fuels such as diesel for running irrigation pump sets. Currently, India uses 12 million grid based (electric) and 9 million diesel irrigation pump sets (C-STEP 2010). However, the high operational cost of diesel pump sets forces farmers to practice deficit irrigation of crops, considerably reducing their yield and income. Solar water pumping systems constitute a cost-effective alternative to irrigation pump sets that run on grid electricity or diesel. The performance of a solar water pumping system is discussed in this paper; the system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a permanent magnet (PM) DC motor and a helical rotor pump. Coupling with solar wind energy is added advantage for electricity generation. Simulation and field test results are presented.
Energy is a key ingredient for the overall development of an economy. India has been endowed with abundant renewable solar energy resource. India is large country and the rate of electrification has not kept pace with the expanding population, urbanization and industrialization and has resulted in the increasing deficit between demand and supply of electricity. This has not only resulted in under electrification but also put heavy pressure on the governments to keep pace with demand for electricity. People not served by the power grid have to rely on fossil fuels like kerosene and diesel for their energy needs and also incur heavy recurring expenditure for the poor people in rural areas. Wherever the rural areas have been brought under power grid the erratic and unreliable power supply has not helped the farmers and the need for an uninterrupted power supply especially during the critical farming period has been has been a major area of concern. India receives a solar energy equivalent of 5,000 trillion kWh/year with a daily average solar energy incidence of 4-7 kWh/m2 . This is considerably more than the total energy consumption of the country. Further, most parts of the country experience 250-300 sunny days in a year, which makes solar energy a viable option in these areas. Among the solar technologies useful in agriculture are water lifting and pumping with solar photovoltaic systems. Water pumping by solar power is a concept which has won widespread interest since the early seventies. Solar energy can be utilized to operate pumps, utilizing either the thermal or light part of solar radiation. With a solar pump, energy is not available on demand, and the daily variation in solar power generation necessitates the storage of a surplus of water pumped on sunny days for use on cloudy days. In view of the fluctuating water demand of any irrigation scheme, solar energy needs to be reserved in the form of either electricity in batteries or lifted water in a storage tank. The suitability of solar power for lifting water to irrigate plants is undeniable because of the complementarity between solar irradiance and water requirements of crops. The more intensively the sun is shining the higher is the power to supply irrigation water while on the other hand on rainy days irrigation is neither possible nor needed. Small scale irrigation is one of the most potential applications of solar power. The main advantage is that solar radiation is intense when the need for irrigation is high. Further, solar power is available at the point of use, making the farmer independent of fuel supplies or electrical transmission lines. The solar pumps have the potential to revolutionize small scale irrigation in the developing countries in the near future. The technical feasibility of solar (photo voltaic) pumps have been established.The major limiting factor has been the high cost and the lack of familiarity of the technology which require concerted effort in training of technicians and large scale introduction in a region with adequate technical support. However with the incentives and initiatives undertaken by MNES/State Govt the scheme may be propagated in rural areas for small irrigation system in far flung rural areas where electrification is a costly proposition. The model scheme is to introduce solar water pumping and support irrigation schemes to provide a sustainable economic activity to farmers in non-electrified or under electrified rural areas .Various agencies and financial institutions are in place to assist in developing credit scheme targeted for non-electrified rural area.
Cost effective: The life cycle and the cost to ultimate beneficiary make the SPV systems cost effective as compared to conventional systems. IN addition the farmer is saved from the capital investment he has to make for drawing lines from the grid to his field/farms. The govt. may save huge resources which otherwise may be uneconomical to network every agriculture field under the state electricity grid.
Reliable: The SPV is more reliable, consistent and predictable power option as compared to conventional power system in rural areas.
Free fuel: Sunlight, the fuel source of SPV system is a widely available, inexhaustible, and reliable and free energy source. Hence the SPV system has no monthly fuel bills.
Low maintenance: The system operates on little servicing and no refueling, making them popular for remote rural areas, hence the operation and maintenance is very low. The suppliers provide maintenance at a very low annual maintenance contract rates.
Local generation of power: The SPV system make use of local resource-sunlight. This provides greater energy security and control of access to energy.
Easy transportation: As SPV systems are modular in nature they can easily be transported in pieces/components and are easily expandable to enhance the capacity.
Energy Conservation: Solar energy is clearly one of the most effective energy conservation programs and provides a means for decentralized PV-generated power in rural areas.
Water conservation: The SPV sets are highly economical when combined with water conservation techniques such as drip irrigation & night time distribution of (day time pumped & stored) water. The SPV system leads to optimum exploitation of scarce ground water.
Environmental friendly: The use of sunlight as a source of fuel leads to clean, eco-friendly and decentralized generation of energy which saves the fossil fuel, controls deforestation and prevents environmental pollution.
It is a nonconventional type of producing the energy. This project is a one step to path of exploring the possibilities of energy from several non-conventional energy sources. The purpose of the project is to design, build and evaluate a treadmill generator system that charges a heavy duty electrical battery. Further, the power output of the prototype is to be quantified at various speeds and different angles of inclination. This output is to be compared to energy expenditure predicted metabolically by human exercise to obtain estimated efficiency calculations. The resulting performance capabilities are to be used for various applications the concept could have
Wind Energy is a renewable source of energy. Today, the output power from wind turbines can be utilized in two ways, either by direct use of the mechanical shaft power (through a gearing ratio) or by letting the wind turbine power an electrical generator, and utilizing the generated power as electrical power. Recent advances in the wind energy harnessing techniques have revealed many modern applications Battery charging at remote telecommunication stations, domestic heating and lighting, hybrid systems, where a generator is run by diesel are few common examples in the present scenario. It is widely accepted fact that we need to switch on to the non-conventional energy sources. This paper brings a new possibility for the utilization of the wind generated power, for various electrical components inside a typical railway train through the batteries charged by the wind energy harnessed by a series of wind turbines mounted at the top of the train coaches. This paper deals with the design and development of a wind turbine system with a concept of generation of electricity as an auxiliary source in the train.
many power generator available in our country to generate the power here we design a model which is generating a power from natural claimatation .In our country the power problem is increasing day by day due to lake of rain water To avoid the power problem in our country the hybrid power generator are used to generate power throughout the day and night. Hybrid systems can provide a steady community-level electricity service, such as village electrification, offering also the possibility to be upgraded through grid connection in the future. Furthermore, due to their high levels of efficiency, reliability and long term performance, these systems can also be used as an effective backup solution to the public grid in case of blackouts or weak grids, and for professional energy solutions, such as telecommunication stations or emergency rooms The hybrid system can be designed following different configurations to effectively use the locally available renewable energy sources and to serve ALL power appliances (requiring DC or AC electricity).Hybrid systems allow for ALL productive uses of electricity (domestic, public and income-generating uses), permitting the scaling up of productive applications and rural development.
So many power generator available in our country to generate the power here we design a model which is generating a power from natural claimatation .In our country the power problem is increasing day by day due to lake of rain water To avoid the power problem in our country the hybrid power generator are used to generate power throughout the day and night. Hybrid systems can provide a steady community-level electricity service, such as village electrification, offering also the possibility to be upgraded through grid connection in the future. Furthermore, due to their high levels of efficiency, reliability and long term performance, these systems can also be used as an effective backup solution to the public grid in case of blackouts or weak grids, and for professional energy solutions, such as telecommunication stations or emergency rooms
This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly used system, the generation of electricity through the speed breaker mechanism. Generation of electricity through the speed breaker mechanism is one of the most recent power generation concepts. This device converts the kinetic energy of the vehicles into electric energy by installing movable speed breaker on the road, it takes the stroke motion of the vehicles and converts it to the rotary motion by rack and pinion mechanism and it generates the electricity. This project also explains clearly, the working principle of the designed system, its practical implementation, and its advantages. The components have been fabricated and assembled. Practical testing of the system has been done with different loads at different speeds. The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. One might conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous, a human being needs to consume more and more energy. And this project is best source of energy that we get in day to day life.
As energy usage across the world continues to rise, there is a strong need to develop new methods for energy conservation and power generation, particularly approaches that have less environmental impacts. Although human power is not ideal in terms of life cycle costs , there are promising application areas for human power in emerging regions where electric power is either not available or not affordable .There is also untapped potential for harnessing human power at most fitness facilities. Now-a-days spin bike was commonly used in gym as well as home for fitness purpose.the motivation for gyms across the nation to harness this energy to create usable electricity that can be fed back into the electric grid.
This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly used system, the generation of electricity through the Foot Step mechanism. Generation of electricity through the Foot Step power generator mechanism is one of the most recent power generation concepts. This device converts the kinetic energy of the human foot steps into electric energy by installing foot step power generators at footpaths, it takes the stroke motion of the foot and converts it to the rotary motion by rack and pinion mechanism and it generates the electricity. This project also explains clearly, the working principle of the designed system, its practical implementation, and its advantages. The components have been fabricated and assembled. Practical testing of the system has been done with different loads at different speeds. The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. One might conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous, a human being needs to consume more and more energy. And this project is best source of energy that we get in day to day life.
Usually all the biogas digesters are use to produce methane gas and the size of thedigesters are commonly bigger in size. Some users whom live in poor conditions whichthat know the uses and the advantages of using methane gas wanted to have a biogasdigester at home and wanted to use the methane gas for replacing the cooking gas and togenerate electricity, because they cannot afford to buy cooking gas and pay the monthlyelectric fee.So, because of that they wanted to have a biogas digester, but according to theiraffordability, they still cannot have the biogas digester which is usually bigger in size.The only solution for them to solve this problem is to produce a mini biogas digester thathas same function with the bigger digester.The project involve the developing and analysis the body shape of the digester tomake it be more efficient to produce methane gas and also will concern about thestructure strength, durability, ergonomic factor and convenience. The new concept of thisdigester is also being more focus on the strength of its body. All the specifications mustbe verified to avoid materials and fund wasting. Overall process to design, develop andfabricate this digester required the skills of designing and fabrication and used all thebasics knowledge of Static, Industrial Design and Manufacturing Technology.
The main aim of our project is to develop a “automatic tyre inflation and deflation system” .this can be placed in all automobiles while long drives and that can be utilized while climbing uphill or down hills. it is very necessary for the every automobile to be cautious while driving through long distances. so we have fabricated this machine to fill the air automatically by using control units. in this project main function is suddenly the air is decreased to the automobile vehicles the sensor signal alerted to the person when the use of air tank to fill the air in the tyre. then the air pressure is increased to the tyre in the vehicle it is same as the process of indicating the sensor signal through the person when the use of solenoid valve to reduce the excess air in the tyre.
The aim is to design and develop a control system based intelligent electronically controlled automotive bumper activation and automatic braking system is called AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC BUMPER AND BREAK ACTUATION BEFORE COLLISION. This project consists of IR transmitter and Receiver circuit, Control Unit, Pneumatic bumper system and pneumatic braking system.
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or warehouse.
The number of patients in India is increasing day by day. So in hospitals patients need to be shifted from wheelchair to stretcher, stretcher to beds, bed to wheelchair, or vice versa; which creates unsafe conditions for patients. Also transferring the patients from wheelchair to stretcher, stretcher to beds, bed to wheelchair is always an issue for the attendant or nurse. We will be using mild steel frames, dc motors, shafts and wheels .
Improved bullock carts will be durable (more than 25 years), which will provide better economy to the farmers or poor people for whom the bullock carts are meant for livelihood. Mechanism used in the project is as follows 1)Tilting The base of the bullock cart is rotated with the help of bevel gears and axle drive mechanism operated by the handle and lever. 2) Lifting The base of the bullock cart is lifted with the help of universal joint which is connected to lead screw which is operated by rotating the handling.
Regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used immediately or stored until needed. Thus, the generated electricity during the braking is fed back into the supply system.
As the world is hard pressed with the energy and fuel crises, compounded by pollution of all kinds, any technologies that bring out the solutions to this problem is considered as a bounty. In one of such new technologies, is the development of a new engine called as compressed air engine which does not require any of the known fuels like diesel, petrol, CNG, LPG, hydrogen etc. this works using only compressed air.
The main aim of our project is to develop a “Automatic tyre inflation and deflation system” .This can be placed in all automobiles while long drives and that can be utilized while climbing uphill or down hills. It is very necessary for the every automobile to be cautious while driving through long distances. So we have fabricated this machine to fill the air automatically by using control units. In this project main function is suddenly the air is decreased to the automobile vehicles the sensor signal alerted to the person when the use of air tank to fill the air in the tyre. Then the air pressure is increased to the tyre in the vehicle i t is same as the process of indicating the sensor signal through the person when the use of solenoid valve to reduce the excess air in the tyre
In this project work, two wheeled and one small supporting wheel self-balancing as well as manually balancing Mechanical Segway vehicle is prepared which is also known as a personal transporter Segway. The system is able to operate in transporter mode and robotic mode. The first goal is to maintain stabilization in pitch dynamic. This project focuses on to manufactured Segway without using any type programming & Sensors a state feedback to stabilize system on transporter mode. The system consist of forward and backward movement when the driver operating DPDT switch in transporter mode in order to stabilize body. Small wheel is used so that there is no need of gyroscope for balancing purpose. The aim of this project work is to build up at a very low cost, highly efficient rate and easy to handle and operating also. The tests are performed on mechanical Segway to confirm that Mechanical Segway operating very well and high efficient rate.
This project aims at automatically controlling the speed of vehicles at speed restricted areas such as schools, hospital zones, traffic signals etc. Nowadays the drivers drive vehicles at high speed even in speed limited areas without considering the safety of the public. The traffic police are not able to control them with full effect. Also it is not practical to monitor these areas throughout. This paper paves way for controlling the speed of the vehicles within certain limit in restricted zones without interruption of the drivers. An RFID is used for this purpose. The RFID reader is attached along with the vehicle and the RFID Tag with these Zones. These tags are programmed to send a coded signal when the reader comes in proximity. Whenever the vehicles enter into these zones their receivers will receive this code and the speed of the vehicles is controlled automatically with the help of the micro controller unit present inside the vehicle. The tags are placed at the beginning and the end of the regions for which the speed should be reduced.
We have seen how severe is bus disasters on fire, accident etc, to avoid causalities and human lives here we are proposing power window mechanism. On sensing any danger in the form of fire and smoke the window automatically will slide down making way for passenger way out from the vehicle. This cool device is the heart of a power-window system. The window lift on most cars uses a really neat linkage to lift the window glass while keeping it level. A small electric motor is attached to a worm gear and several other spur gears to create a large gear reduction, giving it enough torque to lift the window.
This paper presents a unique flywheel-based regenerative energy recovery, storage and release system developed at the author’s laboratory. It can recover and store regenerative energy produced by braking a motion generator with intermittent rotary velocity such as the rotor of a wind turbogenerator subject to intermittent intake wind and the axels of electric and hybrid gas-electric vehicles during frequent coasting and braking. Releasing of the stored regenerative energy in the flywheel is converted to electricity by the attached alternator. A proof-of-concept prototype called the SJSU-RBS was designed, built and tested by author’s students with able assistance of a technical staff in his school.
Keywords – regenerative energy recovery; flywheel; energy storage; kinetic energy
The present research involves the design, construction and testing of a flywheel-based regenerative braking system (RBS), the SJSU-RBS. This particular RBS can store the kinetic energy produced by intermittent energy sources otherwise would be lost because the recovered regenerative energy by these sources is often too small to be saved. This unique regenerative braking system (RBS) allows the recovered regenerative energy to be converted into electric energy by an integrated flywheel/alternator unit. Major components in the SJSU-RBS is presented in Figure 1,
in which the “rotary motion generator” may be the spinning axel of an electric vehicle during coasting and braking, or an electric motor driven by the power generated by solar photovoltaic cells with fluctuating solar energy intensity, or a wind turbine rotor rotating at variable speeds by intermittent intake wind. The inertia clutch in the system engages the flywheel/alternator unit to the input shaft at a constant or accelerated rotary speed of the motion generator. The same clutch disengages the same unit from the input shaft of the motion generator at a reduced speed or after complete stop turning of this shaft. The disengaged flywheel/alternator unit, though spins at reduced speed, can continue to produce electricity. A “speed boosting” device such as an epicyclic gear train with a combination of “sun,” “satellite” and “rim” gears is introduced in the RBS to boost the spinning speed of the flywheel for maximum storage of the kinetic energy. A unique electric charging system has been developed and it is attached to the SJSU-RBS for “electric energy storage, distribution, and management system” as shown in Figure 1. This system can save any level of electricity generated by the recovered regenerative energy by the RBS using a trickle charge controller and a bank of ultracapacitors. It accumulates the input energy to a level that is high enough to be charged to the principal energy storage of the power plants, or to the batteries of an electric vehicle.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS :-
A new regenerative braking system, the SJSU-RBS was developed with the design, construction and testing of a proof-of-concept prototype. It involves a fast spinning flywheel/alternator unit with a uniquely designed progressive braking system and an epicyclic gear train. This new SJSU-RBS can be readily adapted to power plants driven by renewable energies from intermittent sources such as solar, wind and braking of electric and hybrid gas-electric vehicles during coasting and braking. The SJSU-RBS was proof-tested for its feasibility and practicality for the intended applications. Despite the success in the preliminary bench-top testing of the prototype of the SJSU-RBS as presented in the paper, a few key technical issues remain unsolved. Issues such as the optimal design of flywheel for maximum net recovery and storage of regenerative energies; quantification of aerodynamic and electromechanical resistance to the free spinning of the flywheel, and the effective and optimal control of the motion of the flywheel and the driving shafts, etc. will have significant effects on the performance of the SJSU-RBS or similar regenerative braking system for maximal recovery of regenerative energies in reality. Further research on the detailed design and integration of the SJSU-RBS to wind power generating plants and EVs and HEVs for performance enhancements is desirable. The success of such integration will result in great economical returns to the renewable power generation industry. Efficient power generations by renewable energy sources by RBS will make significant contributions to the sustainable development of global economy and well-being of all humankind.